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It is critical to understand how quiescent long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSC) sense demand from daily and stress-mediated cues and transition into bioenergetically active progeny to differentiate and meet these cellular needs. Here, we show that lysosomes, which are sophisticated nutrient sensing and signaling centers, are dichotomously regulated by the Transcription Factor EB (TFEB) and MYC to balance catabolic and anabolic processes required for activating LT-HSC and guiding their lineage fate. TFEB-mediated induction of the endolysosomal pathway causes membrane receptor degradation, limiting LT-HSC metabolic and mitogenic activation, which promotes quiescence, self-renewal and governs erythroid-myeloid commitment. By contrast, MYC engages biosynthetic processes while repressing lysosomal catabolism to drive LT-HSC activation. Collectively, our study identifies lysosomes as a central regulatory hub for proper and coordinated stem cell fate determination.

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