Investigation of Autosomal Genetic Sex Differences in Parkinsons disease
Mary B Makarious,
Sara Bandres Ciga,
Francis P. Grenn,
Jonggeol Jeff Kim,
Jesse Raphael Gibbs,
Dena G Hernandez,
Jennifer A. Ruskey,
Jacobus J. van Hilten,
Pentti J. Tienari,
Alastair J. Noyce,
Mike A Nalls,
Andrew B. Singleton,
on behalf of the International Parkinson’s Disease Genomics Consortium (IPDGC)
Posted 15 Feb 2021
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.02.09.21250262
Posted 15 Feb 2021
Parkinsons disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disorder. Males are on average [~]1.5 times more likely to develop PD compared to females. Over the years genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous genetic risk factors for PD, however it is unclear whether genetics contribute to disease etiology in a sex-specific manner. In an effort to study sex-specific genetic factors associated with PD, we explored two large genetic datasets from the International Parkinsons Disease Genomics Consortium and the UK Biobank consisting of 13,020 male PD cases, 7,936 paternal proxy cases, 89,660 male controls, 7,947 female PD cases, 5,473 maternal proxy cases and 90,662 female controls. We performed GWAS meta-analyses to identify distinct patterns of genetic risk contributing to disease in male versus female PD cases. In total 19 genome-wide significant regions were identified, and no sex-specific effects were observed. A high genetic correlation between the male and female PD GWASes was identified (rg=0.877) and heritability estimates were identical between male and female PD cases ([~]20%). We did not detect any significant genetic differences between male or female PD cases. Our study does not support the notion that common genetic variation on the autosomes could explain the difference in prevalence of PD between males and females at least when considering the current sample size under study. Further studies are warranted to investigate the genetic architecture of PD explained by X and Y chromosomes and further evaluate environmental effects that could potentially contribute to PD etiology in male versus females.
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