D-2-Hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG) is a metabolite in many physiological metabolic processes. When D-2-HG is aberrantly accumulated due to mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenases or D-2-HG dehydrogenase, it functions in a pro-oncogenic manner and is thus considered a therapeutic target and biomarker in many cancers. In this study, DhdR from Achromobacter denitrificans NBRC 15125 was identified as an allosteric transcription factor that negatively regulates D-2-HG dehydrogenase expression and responds to presence of D-2-HG. It is the first known transcription regulator specifically responding to D-2-HG across all domains of life. Based on the allosteric effect of DhdR, a D-2-HG biosensor was developed by combining DhdR with amplified luminescent proximity homogeneous assay technology. The biosensor was able to detect D-2-HG in serum, urine, and cell culture with high specificity and sensitivity. Additionally, this biosensor was also successfully used to identify the role of D-2-HG metabolism in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, demonstrating its broad usages.
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