Proximity-labeling reveals novel host and parasite proteins at the Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole membrane
Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous, intracellular parasite that envelopes its parasitophorous vacuole with a protein-laden membrane (PVM). The PVM is critical for interactions with the infected host cell such as nutrient transport and immune defense. Only a few parasite and host proteins have so far been identified on the host-cytosolic side of the Toxoplasma PVM. We report here the use of human foreskin fibroblasts expressing the proximity-labeling enzyme miniTurbo, fused to a domain that targets it to this face of the PVM, in combination with quantitative proteomics to specifically identify proteins present at this interface. Out of numerous human and parasite proteins with candidate PVM localization, we validate three novel parasite proteins (TGGT1_269950, TGGT1_215360, and TGGT1_217530) and four new host proteins (PDCD6IP/ALIX, PDCD6, CC2D1A, and MOSPD2) as localized to the PVM in infected human cells through immunofluorescence microscopy. These results significantly expand our knowledge of proteins present at the Toxoplasma PVM and, given that three of the validated host proteins are components of the ESCRT machinery, they further suggest that novel biology is operating at this crucial host-pathogen interface.
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