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Background Evidence suggests the role of an inflammatory storm in COVID-19 complications. Colchicine is an orally administered, anti-inflammatory medication beneficial in gout, pericarditis and coronary disease. Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind trial involving non-hospitalized patients with COVID-19 diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing or clinical criteria. The patients were randomly assigned to receive colchicine (0.5 mg twice daily for 3 days and once daily thereafter) or placebo for 30 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the composite of death or hospitalization for COVID-19. Results A total of 4488 patients were enrolled. The primary endpoint occurred in 4.7% of the patients in the colchicine group and 5.8% of those in the placebo group (odds ratio, 0.79; 95.1% confidence interval (CI), 0.61 to 1.03; P=0.08). Among the 4159 patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19, the primary endpoint occurred in 4.6% and 6.0% of patients in the colchicine and placebo groups, respectively (odds ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.99; P=0.04). In these patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19, the odds ratios were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.57 to 0.99) for hospitalization due to COVID-19, 0.50 (95% CI, 0.23 to 1.07) for mechanical ventilation, and 0.56 (95% CI, 0.19 to 1.66) for death. Serious adverse events were reported in 4.9% and 6.3% in the colchicine and placebo groups (P=0.05); pneumonia occurred in 2.9% and 4.1% of patients (P=0.02). Diarrhea was reported in 13.7% and 7.3% in the colchicine and placebo groups (P<0.0001). Conclusion Among non-hospitalized patients with COVID-19, colchicine reduces the composite rate of death or hospitalization. (COLCORONA ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT04322682)

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