Somatic mutations reveal widespread mosaicism and mutagenesis in human placentas
Muzlifah A. Haniffa,
Matthew D Young,
D. Stephen Charnock-Jones,
Posted 27 Jan 2021
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2021.01.26.428217
Posted 27 Jan 2021
Clinical investigations of human fetuses have revealed that placentas occasionally harbour chromosomal aberrations that are absent from the fetus. The basis of this genetic segregation of the placenta, termed confined placental mosaicism, remains unknown. Here, we investigated the phylogeny of human placentas reconstructed from somatic mutations, using whole genome sequencing of 86 placental biopsies and of 106 microdissections. We found that every placental biopsy represented a clonal expansion that is genetically distinct. Biopsies exhibited a genomic landscape akin to childhood cancer, in terms of mutation burden and mutational imprints. Furthermore, unlike any other human normal tissue studied to date, placental genomes commonly harboured copy number changes. Reconstructing phylogenetic relationships between tissues from the same pregnancy, revealed that developmental bottlenecks confined placental tissues, by separating trophectodermal from inner cell mass-derived lineages. Of particular note were cases in which inner cell mass-derived and placental lineages fully segregated within a few cell divisions of the zygote. Such early embryonic bottlenecks may enable the normalisation of zygotic aneuploidy. We observed direct evidence for this in a case of mosaic trisomic rescue. Our findings reveal cancer-like mutagenesis in placental tissues and portray confined mosaicism as the normal outcome of placental development.
- Downloaded 987 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 23,091
- In genomics: 2,223
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 2,148
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 19,493
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!