Mobile element insertions (MEIs) are a major class of structural variants (SVs) and have been linked to many human genetic disorders, including hemophilia, neurofibromatosis, and various cancers. However, human MEI resources from large-scale genome sequencing are still lacking compared to those for SNPs and SVs. Here, we report a comprehensive map of 36,699 non-reference MEIs constructed from 5,675 genomes, comprising 2,998 Chinese samples (~26.2X, NyuWa) and 2,677 samples from the 1000 Genomes Project (~7.4X, 1KGP). We discovered that LINE-1 insertions were highly enriched at centromere regions, implying the role of chromosome context in retroelement insertion. After functional annotation, we estimated that MEIs are responsible for about 9.3% of all protein-truncating events per genome. Finally, we built a companion database named HMEID for public use. This resource represents the latest and largest genomewide study on MEIs and will have broad utility for exploration of human MEI findings.
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