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Much is still unknown about the neurobiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). To better understand AD, we generated 636 ATAC-seq libraries from cases and controls to construct detailed genome-wide chromatin accessibility maps of neurons and non-neurons from two AD-affected brain regions, the entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus. By analyzing a total of 19.6 billion read pairs, we expanded the known repertoire of regulatory sequences in the human brain. Multi-omic data integration associated global patterns of chromatin accessibility with gene expression and identified cell-specific enhancer-promoter interactions. Using inter-individual variation in chromatin accessibility, we define cis-regulatory domains capturing the 3D structure of the genome. Multifaceted analyses uncovered disease associated perturbations impacting chromatin accessibility, transcription factor regulatory networks and the 3D genome, and implicated transcriptional dysregulation in AD. Overall, we applied a systematic approach to understand the role of the 3D genome in AD and to illuminate novel disease biology that can advance diagnosis and therapy.

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