Mental Health Impact of the First Wave of COVID-19 Pandemic on Spanish Healthcare Workers: a Large Cross-sectional Survey
Isabel del Cura-González,
José I. Emparanza,
M. Joao Forjaz,
Ana González Pinto,
Josep M. Haro,
Nieves López Fresneña,
Alma Martínez de Salázar,
Juan D. Molina,
Rafael M. Ortí Lucas,
José Maria Pelayo-Terán,
Aurora Pérez Zapata,
José I. Pijoan,
Ronald C Kessler,
MINDCOVID Working group
Posted 30 Oct 2020
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.10.27.20220731
Posted 30 Oct 2020
IntroductionHealthcare workers are vulnerable to adverse mental health impacts of COVID-19. We assessed prevalence of mental disorders and associated factors during the first wave of the pandemic among healthcare professionals in Spain. MethodsAll workers in 18 healthcare institutions (6 AACC) in Spain were invited to a series of online surveys assessing a wide range of individual characteristics, COVID-19 infection status and exposure, and mental health status. Here we report: current mental disorders (Major Depressive Disorder-MDD- [PHQ-8[≥]10], Generalized Anxiety Disorder-GAD- [GAD-7[≥]10], Panic attacks, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder -PTSD- [PCL-5[≥]7]; and Substance Use Disorder -SUD-[CAGE-AID[≥]2]. Severe disability assessed by the Sheehan Disability Scale was used to identify "disabling" current mental disorders. Results9,138 healthcare workers participated. Prevalence of screen-positive disorder: 28.1% MDD; 22.5% GAD, 24.0% Panic; 22.2% PTSD; and 6.2% SUD. Overall 45.7% presented any current and 14.5% any disabling current mental disorder. Healthcare workers with prior lifetime mental disorders had almost twice the prevalence of current disorders than those without. Adjusting for all other variables, odds of any disabling mental disorder were: prior lifetime disorders (TUS: OR=5.74; 95%CI 2.53-13.03; Mood: OR=3.23; 95%CI:2.27-4.60; Anxiety: OR=3.03; 95%CI:2.53-3.62); age category 18-29 years (OR=1.36; 95%CI:1.02-1.82), caring "all of the time" for COVID-19 patients (OR=5.19; 95%CI: 3.61-7.46), female gender (OR=1.58; 95%CI: 1.27-1.96) and having being in quarantine or isolated (OR= 1.60; 95CI:1.31-1.95). ConclusionsCurrent mental disorders were very frequent among Spanish healthcare workers during the first wave of COVID-19. As the pandemic enters its second wave, careful monitoring and support is needed for healthcare workers, especially those with previous mental disorders and those caring COVID-19 very often.
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