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Current genome-wide association studies (GWASs) do not yet capture sufficient diversity in populations and scope of phenotypes. To expand an atlas of genetic associations in non-European populations, we conducted 220 deep-phenotype GWASs (diseases, biomarkers, and medication usage) in BioBank Japan (n=179,000), by incorporating past medical history and text-mining of electronic medical records. Meta-analyses with the UK Biobank and FinnGen (ntotal=628,000) identified ~5,000 novel loci, which improved the resolution of genomic map of human traits. This atlas elucidated landscape of pleiotropy as represented by MHC locus, where we conducted HLA fine-mapping. Finally, we performed statistical decomposition of matrices of phenome-wide summary statistics, and identified latent genetic components, which pinpointed responsible variants and biological mechanisms underlying current disease classifications across populations. The decomposed components enabled genetically-informed subtyping of similar diseases (e.g., allergic diseases). Our study suggests a potential avenue for hypothesis-free re-investigation of human diseases through genetics.

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