BackgroundYellow fever (YF) is a viral haemorrhagic fever endemic in tropical regions of Africa and South America. Current intervention policies, namely the Eliminate Yellow fever Epidemics (EYE) strategy are actioned through vaccination. However, the stockpiles and production mean that vaccination can be in short supply. As such, intervention strategies need to be optimised; one of the tools for doing this is mathematical modelling. MethodsWe fit a generalised linear model of YF reports to occurrence data available from 1987 to 2019 in Africa and South America and available serology survey data to estimate the force of infection across the continents. Then, using demographic and vaccination data, we examine the impact of interventions. FindingsWe estimate that in 2018 there were approximately 51,000 (95%CrI [31,000 - 82,000]) deaths due to YF in Africa and South America. When we examine the impact of mass vaccination campaigns in Africa, these amount to approximately 10,000 (95%CrI [6,000 - 17,000]) deaths averted in 2018 due to mass vaccination activities in Africa; this corresponds to a 47% reduction (95%CrI [10% - 77%]). InterpretationWe find that the majority, 92% (95%CrI [89% - 95%]), of global burden occurs in Africa and that mass vaccination activities have significantly reduced the current deaths per year due to YF. This methodology allows us to evaluate the effectiveness of vaccination campaigns past, present and future and illustrates the need for continued vigilance and surveillance of YF. FundingBMGF and MRC
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