Clinical characteristics, symptoms, management and health outcomes in 8,598 pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 compared to 27,510 with seasonal influenza in France, Spain and the US: a network cohort analysis
Anthony G. Sena,
Andrea V Margulis,
Evan P. Minty,
Thamir M Alshammari,
Daniel R. Morales,
Jose D. Posada,
Jennifer C E Lane,
Marc A Suchard,
Ru-fong Joanne Cheng,
Posted 14 Oct 2020
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.10.13.20211821
Posted 14 Oct 2020
OBJECTIVESTo describe comorbidities, symptoms at presentation, medication use, and 30-day outcomes after a diagnosis of COVID-19 in pregnant women, in comparison to pregnant women with influenza. DESIGNMultinational network cohort SETTINGA total of 6 databases consisting of electronic medical records and claims data from France, Spain, and the United States. PARTICIPANTSPregnant women with [≥] 1 year in contributing databases, diagnosed and/or tested positive, or hospitalized with COVID-19. The influenza cohort was derived from the 2017-2018 influenza season. OUTCOMESBaseline patient characteristics, comorbidities and presenting symptoms; 30-day inpatient drug utilization, maternal complications and pregnancy-related outcomes following diagnosis/hospitalization. RESULTS8,598 women diagnosed (2,031 hospitalized) with COVID-19 were included. Hospitalized women had, compared to those diagnosed, a higher prevalence sof pre-existing comorbidities including renal impairment (2.2% diagnosed vs 5.1% hospitalized) and anemia (15.5% diagnosed vs 21.3% hospitalized). The ten most common inpatient treatments were systemic corticosteroids (29.6%), enoxaparin (24.0%), immunoglobulins (21.4%), famotidine (20.9%), azithromycin (18.1%), heparin (15.8%), ceftriaxone (7.9%), aspirin (7.0%), hydroxychloroquine (5.4%) and amoxicillin (3.5%). Compared to 27,510 women with influenza, dyspnea and anosmia were more prevalent in those with COVID-19. Women with COVID-19 had higher frequency of cesarean-section (4.4% vs 3.1%), preterm delivery (0.9% vs 0.5%), and poorer maternal outcomes: pneumonia (12.0% vs 2.7%), ARDS (4.0% vs 0.3%) and sepsis (2.1% vs 0.7%). COVID-19 fatality was negligible (N<5 in each database respectively). CONCLUSIONSComorbidities that were more prevalent with COVID-19 hospitalization (compared to COVID-19 diagnosed) in pregnancy included renal impairment and anemia. Multiple medications were used to treat pregnant women hospitalized with COVID-19, some with little evidence of benefit. Anosmia and dyspnea were indicative symptoms of COVID-19 in pregnancy compared to influenza, and may aid differential diagnosis. Despite low fatality, pregnancy and maternal outcomes were worse in COVID-19 than influenza. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ON THIS TOPICO_LICompared to non-pregnant women of reproductive age, pregnant women are less likely to experience typical COVID-19 symptoms, such as fever and myalgia. C_LIO_LIObesity, high maternal age, and comorbid hypertension and diabetes are risk factors for severe COVID-19 among pregnant women. C_LIO_LIDespite relatively high rates of pneumonia and need for oxygen supplementation, fatality rates in pregnant women with COVID-19 are generally low (<1%). C_LI WHAT THIS STUDY ADDSO_LIAlthough not often recorded, dyspnea and anosmia were more often seen in pregnant women with COVID-19 than in women with seasonal influenza, in 6 databases from 3 countries (US, France, Spain). C_LIO_LIRenal impairment and anemia were more common among hospitalized than diagnosed women with COVID-19 during pregnancy. C_LIO_LIDespite limited data on benefit-risk in pregnancy, a large number of medications were used for inpatient management of COVID-19 in pregnant women: approximately 1 in 3 received corticosteroids (some may have been given for a pregnancy-related indication rather than for COVID-19 treatment), 1 in 4 enoxaparin, and 1 in 5 immunoglobulin, famotidine and azithromycin. C_LIO_LICompared to influenza, there was a higher frequency of pregnancy-related complications (cesarean section and preterm deliveries), as well as poorer maternal outcomes (pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, acute kidney injury, and cardiovascular and thromboembolic events) seen in pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19. C_LI
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