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Circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) present in the bodily fluids of patients with cancer may provide non-invasive access to the tumor tissue. Yet, the transcriptomic lineage of tumor-derived EVs before and after tumor-resection remains poorly understood. Here, we established 60 total small RNA-sequencing profiles from 17 aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) patients tumor and adjacent normal tissue, and EVs isolated from urine, serum, and cancer cell culture media. We interrogated the key satellite alteration in tumor-derived EVs and found that resection of tumor prostate tissue leads to differential expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS), P53 pathways, inflammatory/cytokines, oncogenes, and tumor suppressor genes in the EV nanosatellites. Furthermore, we provide a set of novel EV-specific RNA signature, which are present in cancer but are nonexistent in post-resection patients with undetectable cancer. Finally, using a de novo RNAseq assembly followed by characterization of the small RNA landscape, we found novel small RNA clusters (smRCs) in the EVs, which reside in the unannotated regions. Novel smRCs were orthogonally validated for their differential expression in the biomarker discovery cohort using RT-qPCR. We demonstrate that circulating tumor EVs provide a glimpse of the tumor tissue biology, resolving a major bottleneck in the current liquid biopsy efforts. Secretory vesicles appear to be playing a key role in non-canonical Wnt signaling and miRNA pathways, similar to the circulating tumor cells (CTCs), hence, we propose that such vesicles be called circulating tumor extracellular vesicles (CTEVs).

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