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We systematically interrogate the joint genetic architecture of 11 major psychiatric disorders at biobehavioral, functional genomic, and molecular genetic levels of analysis. We identify four broad factors (Neurodevelopmental, Compulsive, Psychotic, and Internalizing) that underlie genetic correlations among the disorders, and test whether these factors adequately explain their genetic correlations with biobehavioral traits. We introduce Stratified Genomic Structural Equation Modelling, which we use to identify gene sets and genomic regions that disproportionately contribute to pleiotropy, including protein-truncating variant intolerant genes expressed in excitatory and GABAergic brain cells that are enriched for pleiotropy between disorders with psychotic features. Multivariate association analyses detect a total of 152 (20 novel) independent loci which act on the four factors, and identify nine loci that act heterogeneously across disorders within a factor. Despite moderate to high genetic correlations across all 11 disorders, we find very little utility of, or evidence for, a single dimension of genetic risk across psychiatric disorders.

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