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Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: Relationships Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Daytime Urinary Symptoms in Children

By Behrang Mahjani, Lotta Renström Koskela, Christina Gustavsson Mahjani, Magdalena Janecka, Anita Batuure, Christina M Hultman, Abraham Reichenberg, Joseph D. Buxbaum, Dorothy E. Grice

Posted 01 Sep 2020
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.08.28.20183541

Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), e.g., urinary frequency, pressure, urgency, and overactive bladder syndrome, are commonly reported in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Understanding the co-occurrence of these conditions has implications regarding clinical approaches, treatments, and improved quality of life. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the relationships between LUTS and ADHD in children. We searched for articles published between January 1990 and July 2019, in PubMed, CENTRAL, and PsycNet. Two authors independently screened all articles and extracted data. We performed random-effect meta-analyses for ADHD with pooled outcomes for LUTS. We identified 117 relevant articles in the literature and 17 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the systematic review, of which, 5 articles had sufficient data for meta-analysis. Examining ADHD among individuals with LUTS, the odds ratio was 2.99 (95% CI: 1.13,7.88, P < 0.001), compared to controls. In multiple studies, the mean overall score for LUTS, using a standardized measure, was significantly higher in patients with ADHD in comparison to controls, and the severity of ADHD was positively associated with the severity of LUTS. Younger age in children was correlated with a higher LUTS score. Different subtypes of urinary incontinence demonstrated differences in behavioral problems and psychiatric comorbidity. Sex differences in LUTS were not consistent across articles. Our results indicate clinically significant associations between ADHD and LUTS in children. Because LUTS and ADHD are common disorders in children, clinicians should be aware of these associations as they inform optimal assessment and treatment strategies.

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