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Lymphocyte subset alterations with disease severity, imaging manifestation, and delayed hospitalization in COVID-19 patients

By Da Xian Wu, Xiao Ping Wu, Jian Sheng Huang, Qun Fang Rao, Qi Zhang, Wen Feng Zhang

Posted 31 Aug 2020
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.08.25.20181321

Background: COVID-19 continuously threated public health heavily. Present study aimed to investigate the lymphocyte subset alterations with disease severity, imaging manifestation, and delayed hospitalization in COVID-19 patients. Methods: Lymphocyte subsets was classified using flow cytometry with peripheral blood collected from 106 patients. Results: Multivariate logistic regression showed that chest tightness, lymphocyte count, and {gamma}-glutamyl transpeptidase were the independent predictors for severe COVID-19. The T cell, CD4+ T cell and B cell counts in severe patients were significantly lower than that in mild patients (p = 0.004, 0.003 and 0.046, respectively). Only the T cell count was gradually decreased with the increase of infiltrated quadrants of lesions in computed tomography (CT) (p = 0.043). The T cell, CD4+ T cell, and CD8+ T cell counts were gradually decreased with the increase of infiltrated area of the maximum lesion in CT (p = 0.002, 0.003, 0.028; respectively). The T cell count, as well as CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, and NK cell counts were gradually decreased with the increased delayed hospitalization (p = 0.003, 0.002, 0.013, and 0.012; respectively). The proportion of T cell was gradually decreased but B cell was gradually increased with the increased delayed hospitalization (p = 0.031 and 0.003, respectively). Conclusion: T cell and CD4+ T cell counts negatively correlated with disease severity, CT manifestation and delayed hospitalization. CD4+ T cell was mainstay of immunity response in COVID-19 patients.

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