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Type 1 interferons (IFN-I) are potent innate antiviral effectors that constrain HIV-1 transmission. However, harnessing these cytokines for HIV-1 cure strategies has been hampered by an incomplete understanding of their anti-viral activities at later stages of infection. Here, we characterized the IFN-I sensitivity of 500 clonally-derived HIV-1 isolates from plasma and CD4+ T cells of 26 individuals sampled longitudinally following transmission and/or after antiretroviral therapy (ART) and analytical treatment interruption (ATI). Determining the concentration of IFN2 and IFN{beta} that reduced HIV-1 replication by 50% (IC50), we found remarkably consistent changes in the sensitivity of viruses to IFN-I inhibition, both across individuals and over time. IFN-I resistance was uniformly high during acute infection, decreased in all subjects in the first year post-infection, was reacquired concomitant with CD4+ T cell loss, and remained elevated in subjects with accelerated disease. Isolates obtained by viral outgrowth during suppressive ART were relatively IFN-I sensitive, resembling viruses circulating just prior to ART initiation. However, viruses that rebounded following treatment interruption displayed the highest levels of IFN2 and IFN{beta} resistance observed at any time during the infection course. These findings indicate a dynamic interplay between host innate immune responses and the evolving HIV-1 quasispecies, with the relative contribution of IFN-I to HIV-1 control impacted by both ART and ATI. Although elevated at transmission, IFN-mediated pressures are the highest during viral rebound, limiting the viruses that successfully reactivate from latency.

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