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The molecular pathology of multi-organ injuries in COVID-19 patients remains unclear, preventing effective therapeutics development. Here, we report an in-depth multi-organ proteomic landscape of COVID-19 patient autopsy samples. By integrative analysis of proteomes of seven organs, namely lung, spleen, liver, heart, kidney, thyroid and testis, we characterized 11,394 proteins, in which 5336 were perturbed in COVID-19 patients compared to controls. Our data showed that CTSL, rather than ACE2, was significantly upregulated in the lung from COVID-19 patients. Dysregulation of protein translation, glucose metabolism, fatty acid metabolism was detected in multiple organs. Our data suggested upon SARS-CoV-2 infection, hyperinflammation might be triggered which in turn induces damage of gas exchange barrier in the lung, leading to hypoxia, angiogenesis, coagulation and fibrosis in the lung, kidney, spleen, liver, heart and thyroid. Evidence for testicular injuries included reduced Leydig cells, suppressed cholesterol biosynthesis and sperm mobility. In summary, this study depicts the multi-organ proteomic landscape of COVID-19 autopsies, and uncovered dysregulated proteins and biological processes, offering novel therapeutic clues.

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