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Background: In COVID-19, high levels of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and inflammatory myeloid cells correlate with disease severity, cytokine storm, and respiratory failure. With this rationale, we used lenzilumab, an anti-human GM-CSF monoclonal antibody, to treat patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and risk factors for poor outcomes were treated with lenzilumab 600 mg intravenously for three doses through an emergency single-use IND application. Patient characteristics, clinical and laboratory outcomes, and adverse events were recorded. All patients receiving lenzilumab through May 1, 2020 were included in this report. Results: Twelve patients were treated with lenzilumab. Clinical improvement was observed in 11 out of 12 (92%), with a median time to discharge of 5 days. There was a significant improvement in oxygenation: The proportion of patients with SpO2/FiO2 < 315 at the end of observation was 8% vs. compared to 67% at baseline (p=0.00015). A significant improvement in mean CRP and IL-6 values on day 3 following lenzilumab administration was also observed (137.3 mg/L vs 51.2 mg/L, p = 0.040; 26.8 pg/mL vs 16.1 pg/mL, p = 0.035; respectively). Cytokine analysis showed a reduction in inflammatory myeloid cells two days after lenzilumab treatment. There were no treatment-emergent adverse events attributable to lenzilumab, and no mortality in this cohort of patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Conclusions: In high-risk COVID-19 patients with severe pneumonia, GM-CSF neutralization with lenzilumab was safe and associated with improved clinical outcomes, oxygen requirement, and cytokine storm.

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