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ANGPTL8 protein-truncating variant and the risk of coronary disease, type 2 diabetes and adverse effects

By Pyry Helkkula, Tuomo T. J. Kiiskinen, Aki S. Havulinna, Juha Karjalainen, Seppo Koskinen, Veikko Salomaa, FinnGen, Mark J. Daly, Aarno Palotie, Ida Surakka, Samuli Ripatti

Posted 12 Jun 2020
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.06.09.20125278

Protein-truncating variants (PTVs) affecting dyslipidemia risk may point to therapeutic targets for cardiometabolic disease. Our objective was to identify PTVs that associated with both lipid levels and cardiometabolic disease risk and assess their possible associations with risks of other diseases. To achieve this aim, we leveraged the enrichment of PTVs in the Finnish population and tested the association of low-frequency PTVs in 1,209 genes with serum lipid levels in the Finrisk Study (n = 23,435). We then tested which of the lipid-associated PTVs also associated with risks of cardiometabolic diseases or 2,264 disease endpoints curated in the FinnGen Study (n = 176,899). Three PTVs were associated with both lipid levels and the risk of cardiometabolic disease: triglyceride-lowering variants in ANGPTL8 (-24.0[-30.4 to -16.9] mg/dL per rs760351239-T allele, P = 3.4x10-9 and ANGPTL4 (-14.4[-18.6 to -9.8] mg/dL per rs746226153-G allele, P = 4.3x10-9 and the HDL cholesterol-elevating variant in LIPG (10.2[7.5 to 13.0] mg/dL per rs200435657-A allele, P = 5.0x10-13). The risk of type 2 diabetes was lower in carriers of ANGPTL8 (odds ratio [OR] = 0.67[0.47-0.92], P = 0.01), ANGPTL4 (OR = 0.70[0.60-0.82], P = 1.4x10-5) and LIPG (OR = 0.67[0.48-0.91], P = 0.01) PTVs than in noncarriers. Moreover, the odds of coronary artery disease were 44% lower in carriers of a PTV in ANGPTL8 (OR = 0.56[0.38-0.83], P = 0.004). Finally, the phenome-wide scan of the ANGPTL8 PTV showed a markedly higher associated risk of esophagitis (585 cases, OR = 174.3[17.7-1715.1], P= 9.7x10-6) and sensorineural hearing loss (12,250 cases, OR = 2.45[1.63-3.68], P = 1.8x10-5). The ANGPTL8 PTV carriers were less likely to use statin therapy (53,518 cases, OR = 0.53[0.41-0.71], P = 1.2x10-5). Our findings provide genetic evidence of potential long-term efficacy and safety of therapeutic targeting of dyslipidemias.

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