Proteome-wide analysis of phospho-regulated PDZ domain interactions through phosphomimetic proteomic peptide phage display
We report phosphomimetic proteomic peptide-phage display, a powerful large-scale method for finding ligands of short linear motif binding domains that simultaneously pinpoint functional Ser/Thr phosphosites in three steps. First, we computationally designed an oligonucleotide library encoding all human C-terminal peptides containing known or predicted Ser/Thr phosphosites and phosphomimetic variants thereof. Second, we incorporated these oligonucleotides into a phage library. Third, we screened the six PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domains of Scribble and DLG1 for binding and identified known and novel ligands from the human proteome, and whether these interactions may be regulated by ligand phosphorylation. We demonstrate that the Scribble PDZ domains preferentially bind to ligands with phosphomimetic mutations at two distinct positions, and show that the equilibrium dissociation constant for Scribble PDZ1 with the C-terminal peptide of RPS6KA2 is enhanced over four-fold by phosphorylation. We elucidate the molecular determinants of phosphopeptide binding through NMR structure determination and mutational analysis. Finally, we discuss the role of Ser/Thr phosphorylation as a switching mechanism of PDZ domain interactions.
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