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Severe COVID-19 patients account for most of the mortality of this disease. Early detection and effective treatment of severe patients remain major challenges. Here, we performed proteomic and metabolomic profiling of sera from 46 COVID-19 and 53 control individuals. We then trained a machine learning model using proteomic and metabolomic measurements from a training cohort of 18 non-severe and 13 severe patients. The model correctly classified severe patients with an accuracy of 93.5%, and was further validated using ten independent patients, seven of which were correctly classified. We identified molecular changes in the sera of COVID-19 patients implicating dysregulation of macrophage, platelet degranulation and complement system pathways, and massive metabolic suppression. This study shows that it is possible to predict progression to severe COVID-19 disease using serum protein and metabolite biomarkers. Our data also uncovered molecular pathophysiology of COVID-19 with potential for developing anti-viral therapies.

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