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Lactate dehydrogenase, a Risk Factor of Severe COVID-19 Patients

By Yi Han, Haidong Zhang, Sucheng Mu, Wei Wei, Chaoyuan Jin, Yuan Xue, Chaoyang Tong, Yunfei Zha, Zhenju Song, Guorong Gu

Posted 27 Mar 2020
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.03.24.20040162

BACKGROUNDThe World Health Organization (WHO) has recently declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a public health emergency of global concern. Updated analysis of cases might help identify the characteristic and risk factors of the illness severity. METHODSWe extracted data regarding 47 patients with confirmed COVID-19 from Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University between February 1 and February 18, 2020. The degree of severity of COVID-19 patients (severe vs. non-severe) was defined at the time of admission according to American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). RESULTSThe median age was 64.91 years, 26 cases (55.31%) were male of which, and 70.83% were severe cases. Severe patients had higher APACHE II (9.92 vs 4.74) and SOFA (3.0 vs 1.0) scores on admission, as well as the higher PSI (86.13 vs 61.39), Curb-65 (1.14 vs 0.48) and CT semiquantitative scores (5.0 vs 2.0) when compared with non-severe patients. Among all univariable parameters, APACHE II, SOFA, lymphocytes, CRP, LDH, AST, cTnI, BNP, et al were significantly independent risk factors of COVID-19 severity. Among which, LDH was most positively related both with APACHE II (R = 0.682) and SOFA (R = 0.790) scores, as well as PSI (R = 0.465) and CT (R = 0.837) scores. To assess the diagnostic value of these selected parameters, LDH (0.9727) had maximum sensitivity (100.00%) and specificity (86.67%), with the cutoff value of 283. As a protective factor, lymphocyte counts less than 1.045 [x] 109 /L showed a good accuracy for identification of severe patients with AUC = 0.9845 (95%CI 0.959-1.01), the maximum specificity (91.30%) and sensitivity (95.24%). In addition, LDH was positively correlated with CRP, AST, BNP and cTnI, while negatively correlated with lymphocyte cells and its subsets, including CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONSThis study showed that LDH could be identified as a powerful predictive factor for early recognition of lung injury and severe COVID-19 cases. And importantly, lymphocyte counts, especially CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells in the peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients, which was relevant with serum LDH, were also dynamically correlated with the severity of the disease. FUNDINGKey Project of Shanghai Municipal Health Bureau (2016ZB0202)

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