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Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans
Peter H Sudmant,
Joshua G Schraiber,
Kirsten I. Bos,
Cesare de Filippo,
Hamza A. Babiker,
Claudio M. Bravi,
David E. C. Cole,
George van Driem,
Sardana A. Fedorova,
Irene Gallego Romero,
Aashish R Jha,
Robert W. Mahley,
Elena B. Starikovskaya,
Mark G. Thomas,
Sarah A. Tishkoff,
Evan E Eichler,
Posted 23 Dec 2013
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/001552 (published DOI: 10.1038/nature13673)
Posted 23 Dec 2013
We sequenced genomes from a ~7,000 year old early farmer from Stuttgart in Germany, an ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherer from Luxembourg, and seven ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherers from southern Sweden. We analyzed these data together with other ancient genomes and 2,345 contemporary humans to show that the great majority of present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: West European Hunter-Gatherers (WHG), who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; Ancient North Eurasians (ANE), who were most closely related to Upper Paleolithic Siberians and contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and Early European Farmers (EEF), who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harbored WHG-related ancestry. We model these populations' deep relationships and show that EEF had ~44% ancestry from a "Basal Eurasian" lineage that split prior to the diversification of all other non-African lineages.
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