Heart injury signs are associated with higher and earlier mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
The first batch of medical teams from Shanghai to support Hubei, China and study group
Posted 29 Feb 2020
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.02.26.20028589
Posted 29 Feb 2020
ImportanceHeart injury can be easily induced by viral infection such as adenovirus and enterovirus. However, whether coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes heart injury and hereby impacts mortality has not yet been fully evaluated. ObjectiveTo explore whether heart injury occurs in COVID-19 on admission and hereby aggravates mortality later. Design, Setting, and ParticipantsA single-center retrospective cohort study including 188 COVID-19 patients admitted from December 25, 2019 to January 27, 2020 in Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, China; follow up was completed on February 11, 2020. ExposuresHigh levels of heart injury indicators on admission (hs-TNI; CK; CK-MB; LDH; -HBDH). Main Outcomes and MeasuresMortality in hospital and days from admission to mortality (survival days). ResultsOf 188 patients with COVID-19, the mean age was 51.9 years (standard deviation: 14.26; range: 21[~]83 years) and 119 (63.3%) were male. Increased hs-TnI levels on admission tended to occur in older patients and patients with comorbidity (especially hypertension). High hs-TnI on admission ([≥] 6.126 pg/mL), even within the clinical normal range (0[~]28 pg/mL), already can be associated with higher mortality. High hs-TnI was associated with increased inflammatory levels (neutrophils, IL-6, CRP, and PCT) and decreased immune levels (lymphocytes, monocytes, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells). CK was not associated with mortality. Increased CK-MB levels tended to occur in male patients and patients with current smoking. High CK-MB on admission was associated with higher mortality. High CK-MB was associated with increased inflammatory levels and decreased lymphocytes. Increased LDH and -HBDH levels tended to occur in older patients and patients with hypertension. Both high LDH and -HBDH on admission were associated with higher mortality. Both high LDH and -HBDH were associated with increased inflammatory levels and decreased immune levels. hs-TNI level on admission was negatively correlated with survival days (r= -0.42, 95% CI= -0.64[~]-0.12, P=0.005). LDH level on admission was negatively correlated with survival days (r= -0.35, 95% CI= -0.59[~]-0.05, P=0.022). Conclusions and RelevanceHeart injury signs arise in COVID-19, especially in older patients, patients with hypertension and male patients with current smoking. COVID-19 virus might attack heart via inducing inflammatory storm. High levels of heart injury indicators on admission are associated with higher mortality and shorter survival days. COVID-19 patients with signs of heart injury on admission must be early identified and carefully managed by cardiologists, because COVID-19 is never just confined to respiratory injury. Key pointsO_ST_ABSQuestionC_ST_ABSDoes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cause heart injury and hereby impact mortality? FindingsIn this retrospective cohort study including 188 patients with COVID-19, patients with high levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-TNI) on admission had significantly higher mortality (50.0%) than patients with moderate or low levels of hs-TNI (10.0% or 9.1%). hs-TNI level on admission was significantly negatively correlated with survival days (r= -0.42, 95% CI= -0.64[~]-0.12, P=0.005). MeaningCOVID-19 patients with signs of heart injury on admission must be early identified and carefully managed by cardiologists, in order to maximally prevent or rescue heart injury-related mortality in COVID-19.
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