Comorbidity and its impact on 1,590 patients with COVID-19 in China: A Nationwide Analysis
on behalf of China Medical Treatment Expert Group for COVID-19
Posted 27 Feb 2020
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.02.25.20027664
Posted 27 Feb 2020
ObjectiveTo evaluate the spectrum of comorbidities and its impact on the clinical outcome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). DesignRetrospective case studies Setting575 hospitals in 31 province/autonomous regions/provincial municipalities across China Participants1,590 laboratory-confirmed hospitalized patients. Data were collected from November 21st, 2019 to January 31st, 2020. Main outcomes and measuresEpidemiological and clinical variables (in particular, comorbidities) were extracted from medical charts. The disease severity was categorized based on the American Thoracic Society guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia. The primary endpoint was the composite endpoints, which consisted of the admission to intensive care unit (ICU), or invasive ventilation, or death. The risk of reaching to the composite endpoints was compared among patients with COVID-19 according to the presence and number of comorbidities. ResultsOf the 1,590 cases, the mean age was 48.9 years. 686 patients (42.7%) were females. 647 (40.7%) patients were managed inside Hubei province, and 1,334 (83.9%) patients had a contact history of Wuhan city. Severe cases accounted for 16.0% of the study population. 131 (8.2%) patients reached to the composite endpoints. 399 (25.1%) reported having at least one comorbidity. 269 (16.9%), 59 (3.7%), 30 (1.9%), 130 (8.2%), 28 (1.8%), 24 (1.5%), 21 (1.3%), 18 (1.1%) and 3 (0.2%) patients reported having hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes, hepatitis B infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney diseases, malignancy and immunodeficiency, respectively. 130 (8.2%) patients reported having two or more comorbidities. Patients with two or more comorbidities had significantly escalated risks of reaching to the composite endpoint compared with those who had a single comorbidity, and even more so as compared with those without (all P<0.05). After adjusting for age and smoking status, patients with COPD (HR 2.681, 95%CI 1.424-5.048), diabetes (HR 1.59, 95%CI 1.03-2.45), hypertension (HR 1.58, 95%CI 1.07-2.32) and malignancy (HR 3.50, 95%CI 1.60-7.64) were more likely to reach to the composite endpoints than those without. As compared with patients without comorbidity, the HR (95%CI) was 1.79 (95%CI 1.16-2.77) among patients with at least one comorbidity and 2.59 (95%CI 1.61-4.17) among patients with two or more comorbidities. ConclusionComorbidities are present in around one fourth of patients with COVID-19 in China, and predispose to poorer clinical outcomes. HighlightsO_ST_ABSWhat is already known on this topicC_ST_ABS- Since November 2019, the rapid outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has recently become a public health emergency of international concern. There have been 79,331 laboratory-confirmed cases and 2,595 deaths globally as of February 25th, 2020 - Previous studies have demonstrated the association between comorbidities and other severe acute respiratory diseases including SARS and MERS. - No study with a nationwide representative cohort has demonstrated the spectrum of comorbidities and the impact of comorbidities on the clinical outcomes in patients with COVID-19. What this study adds- In this nationwide study with 1,590 patients with COVID-19, comorbidities were identified in 399 patients. Comorbidities of COVID-19 mainly included hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes, hepatitis B infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney diseases, malignancy and immunodeficiency. - The presence of as well as the number of comorbidities predicted the poor clinical outcomes (admission to intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, or death) of COVID-19. - Comorbidities should be taken into account when estimating the clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19 on hospital admission.
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