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Early Prediction of Disease Progression in 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Patients Outside Wuhan with CT and Clinical Characteristics

By Zhichao Feng, Qizhi Yu, Shanhu Yao, Lei Luo, Junhong Duan, Zhimin Yan, Min Yang, Hongpei Tan, Mengtian Ma, Ting Li, Dali Yi, Ze Mi, Hufei Zhao, Yi Jiang, Zhenhu He, Huiling Li, Wei Nie, Yin Liu, Jing Zhao, Muqing Luo, Xuanhui Liu, Pengfei Rong, Wei Wang

Posted 23 Feb 2020
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.02.19.20025296

ObjectiveTo determine the predictive value of CT and clinical characteristics for short-term disease progression in patients with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP). Materials and Methods224 patients with confirmed 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection outside Wuhan who had chest CT examinations were retrospectively screened. Clinical data were obtained from electronic medical records. CT images were reviewed and scored for lesion distribution, lobe and segment involvement, ground-glass opacities, consolidation, and interstitial thickening. All included patients with moderate NCP were observed for at least 14 days from admission to determine whether they exacerbated to severe NCP (progressive group) or not (stable group). CT and clinical characteristics between the two groups were compared, and multivariate logistic regression and sensitivity analyses were performed to identify the risk factors for developing severe NCP. ResultsA total of 141 patients with moderate NCP were included, of which 15 (10.6%) patients developed severe NCP during hospitalization and assigned to the progressive group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (odds ratio [OR] and 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26 [1.04-1.53]; P = 0.018) and CT severity score (OR and 95% CI, 1.25 [1.08-1.46]; P = 0.004) on admission were independent predictors for progression to severe NCP, and sensitivity analysis confirmed the consistent results in nonimported patients but not in imported patients. However, no significant difference in lung involvement was found on CT between imported and nonimported patients (all P > 0.05). Patients who were admitted more than 4 days from symptom onset tended to have more severe lung involvement. Spearman correlation analysis showed the close association between CT severity score and inflammatory indexes (r = 0.17[~]0.47, all P < 0.05). ConclusionCT severity score was associated with inflammatory levels and higher NLR and CT severity score on admission were independent risk factors for short-term progression in patients with NCP outside Wuhan. Furthermore, early admission and surveillance by CT should be recommended to improve clinical outcomes.

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