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Higher severity and mortality in male patients with COVID-19 independent of age and susceptibility

By Jian-Min Jin, Peng Bai, Wei A He, Fei Wu, Xiao-Fang Liu, De-Min Han, Shi Liu, Jin-Kui Yang

Posted 25 Feb 2020
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.02.23.20026864

ImportanceThe recent outbreak of Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) Disease (COVID-19) has put the world on alert, that is reminiscent of the SARS outbreak seventeen years ago. ObjectiveWe aim to compare the severity and mortality between male and female patients with both COVID-19 and SARS, to explore the most useful prognostic factors for individualized assessment. Design, Setting, and ParticipantsWe extracted the data from a case series of 43 hospitalized patients we treated, a public data set of the first 37 cases died of COVID-19 in Wuhan city and 1019 survived patients from six cities in China. We also analyzed the data of 524 patients with SARS, including 139 deaths, from Beijing city in early 2003. Main Outcomes and MeasuresSeverity and mortality. ResultsOlder age and high number of comorbidities were associated with higher severity and mortality in patients with both COVID-19 and SARS. The percentages of older age ([&ge;]65 years) were much higher in the deceased group than in the survived group in patients with both COVID-19 (83.8 vs. 13.2, P<0.001) and SARS (37.4 vs. 4.9, P<0.001). In the case series, men tend to be more serious than women (P=0.035), although age was comparable between men and women. In the public data set, age was also comparable between men and women in the deceased group or the survived group in patients with COVID-19. Meanwhile, gender distribution was exactly symmetrical in the 1019 survivors of COVID-19. However, the percentage of male were higher in the deceased group than in the survived group (70.3 vs. 50.0, P=0.015). The gender role in mortality was also observed in SARS patients. Survival analysis showed that men (hazard ratio [95% CI] 1.47 [1.05-2.06, P= 0.025) had a significantly higher mortality rate than women in patients with SARS. Conclusions and RelevanceOlder age and male gender are risk factors for worse outcome in patients with COVID. While men and women have the same susceptibility to both SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, men may be more prone to have higher severity and mortality independent of age and susceptibility. Key PointsO_ST_ABSQuestionC_ST_ABSAre men more susceptible to getting and dying from COVID-19? FindingsIn the case series, men tend to be more serious than women. In the public data set, the percentage of men were higher in the deceased group than in the survived group, although age was comparable between men and women. MeaningMale gender is a risk factor for worse outcome in patients with COVID independent of age and susceptibility.

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