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Kidney impairment is associated with in-hospital death of COVID-19 patients

By Yichun Cheng, Ran Luo, Kun Wang, Meng Zhang, Zhixiang Wang, Lei Dong, Junhua Li, Ying Yao, Shuwang Ge, Gang Xu

Posted 20 Feb 2020
medRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.02.18.20023242

BackgroundInformation on kidney impairment in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is limited. This study aims to assess the prevalence and impact of abnormal urine analysis and kidney dysfunction in hospitalized COVID-19 patients in Wuhan. MethodsWe conducted a consecutive cohort study of COVID-19 patients admitted in a tertiary teaching hospital with 3 branches following a major outbreak in Wuhan in 2020. Hematuria, proteinuria, serum creatinine concentration and other clinical parameters were extracted from the electronic hospitalization databases and laboratory databases. Incidence rate for acute kidney injury (AKI) was examined during the study period. Association between kidney impairment and in-hospital death was analyzed. ResultsWe included 710 consecutive COVID-19 patients, 89 (12.3%) of whom died in hospital. The median age of the patients was 63 years (inter quartile range, 51-71), including 374 men and 336 women. On admission, 44% of patients have proteinuria hematuria and 26.9% have hematuria, and the prevalence of elevated serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen were 15.5% and 14.1% respectively. During the study period, AKI occurred in 3.2% patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that patients with kidney impairment have higher risk for in-hospital death. Cox proportional hazard regression confirmed that elevated serum creatinine, elevated urea nitrogen, AKI, proteinuria and hematuria was an independent risk factor for in-hospital death after adjusting for age, sex, disease severity, leukocyte count and lymphocyte count. ConclusionsThe prevalence of kidney impairment (hematuria, proteinuria and kidney dysfunction) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients was high. After adjustment for confounders, kidney impairment indicators were associated with higher risk of in-hospital death. Clinicians should increase their awareness of kidney impairment in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

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