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We investigated type 2 diabetes (T2D) genetic susceptibility in a multi-ethnic meta-analysis of 228,499 cases and 1,178,783 controls in the Million Veteran Program (MVP) and other biobanks. We identified 558 autosomal and 10 X-chromosome T2D-associated variants, of which 286 autosomal and 7 X-chromosome variants were previously unreported. Ancestry-specific analyses identified 25 additional novel T2D-susceptibility variants. Transcriptome-wide association analysis detected 3,568 T2D-associations with T2D-colocalized genetically predicted gene expression of 804 genes in 52 tissues, of which 687 are novel. Fifty-four of these genes are known to interact with FDA-approved drugs and chemical compounds. T2D polygenic risk score was strongly associated with increased the risk of T2D-related retinopathy, and additionally showed evidence for association with chronic kidney disease (CKD), neuropathy, and peripheral artery disease (PAD). We investigated the genetic etiology of T2D-related vascular outcomes in the MVP and observed statistical SNP-T2D interactions at 13 variants, including 3 for coronary heart disease, 1 for PAD, 2 for stroke, 4 for retinopathy, 2 for CKD, and 1 for neuropathy. Our findings may identify potential novel therapeutic targets for T2D and genomic pathways that link T2D and its vascular outcomes.

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