ObjectiveThe aim of this review was to investigate whether e-cigarette use compared to non-use in young non-smokers is associated with subsequent cigarette smoking. Data sourcesPubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Wiley Cochrane Library databases, and the 2018 Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco and Society for Behavioural Medicine conference abstracts. Study selectionAll studies of young people (up to age 30 years) with a measure of e-cigarette use prior to smoking and an outcome measure of smoking where an odds ratio could be calculated were included (excluding reviews and animal studies). Data ExtractionIndependent extraction was completed by multiple authors using a pre-prepared extraction form. Data synthesisOf 9,199 results, 17 studies were included in the meta-analysis. There was strong evidence for an association between e-cigarette use among non-smokers and later smoking (OR 4.59, 95% CI 3.60 to 5.85) when the results were meta-analysed in a random effects model. However, there was high heterogeneity (I2 = 88%). ConclusionsWhilst the association between e-cigarette use among non-smokers and subsequent smoking appears strong, the available evidence is limited by the reliance on self-report measures of smoking history without biochemical verification. None of the studies included negative controls which would provide stronger evidence for whether the association may be causal. Much of the evidence also failed to consider the nicotine content of e-liquids used by non-smokers meaning it is difficult to make conclusions about whether nicotine is the mechanism driving this association.
- Downloaded 497 times
- Download rankings, all-time:
- Site-wide: 60,355
- In epidemiology: 2,665
- Year to date:
- Site-wide: 99,440
- Since beginning of last month:
- Site-wide: 89,189
Downloads over time
Distribution of downloads per paper, site-wide
- 27 Nov 2020: The website and API now include results pulled from medRxiv as well as bioRxiv.
- 18 Dec 2019: We're pleased to announce PanLingua, a new tool that enables you to search for machine-translated bioRxiv preprints using more than 100 different languages.
- 21 May 2019: PLOS Biology has published a community page about Rxivist.org and its design.
- 10 May 2019: The paper analyzing the Rxivist dataset has been published at eLife.
- 1 Mar 2019: We now have summary statistics about bioRxiv downloads and submissions.
- 8 Feb 2019: Data from Altmetric is now available on the Rxivist details page for every preprint. Look for the "donut" under the download metrics.
- 30 Jan 2019: preLights has featured the Rxivist preprint and written about our findings.
- 22 Jan 2019: Nature just published an article about Rxivist and our data.
- 13 Jan 2019: The Rxivist preprint is live!