Genome-wide association analyses in >119,000 individuals identifies thirteen morningness and two sleep duration loci
Samuel Edward Jones,
Andrew R. Wood,
Katherine S. Ruth,
Marcus A. Tuke,
James F. Wilson,
Fabiola Del Greco,
Andrew A. Hicks,
Seung Ku Lee,
Enda M. Byrne,
Philip R. Gehrman,
Karla V. Allebrandt,
Rachel M Freathy,
David A. Hinds,
Timothy M. Frayling,
Posted 02 Feb 2016
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/031369 (published DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006125)
Posted 02 Feb 2016
Disrupted circadian rhythms and reduced sleep duration are associated with several human diseases, particularly obesity and type 2 diabetes, but little is known about the genetic factors influencing these heritable traits. We performed genome-wide association studies of self-reported chronotype (morning/evening person) and self-reported sleep duration in 128,266 White British individuals from the UK Biobank study. Sixteen variants were associated with chronotype (P<5x10-8), including variants near the known circadian rhythm genes RGS16 (1.21 odds of morningness [95%CI 1.15, 1.27], P=3x10-12) and PER2 (1.09 odds of morningness [95%CI 1.06, 1.12], P=4x10-10). The PER2 signal has previously been associated with iris function. We sought replication using self-reported data from 89,823 23andMe participants; thirteen of the chronotype signals remained significant at P<5x10-8 on meta-analysis and eleven of these reached P<0.05 in the same direction in the 23andMe study. For sleep duration, we replicated one known signal in PAX8 (2.6 [95%CIs 1.9, 3.2] minutes per allele P=5.7x10-16) and identified and replicated two novel associations at VRK2 (2.0 [95% CI: 1.3, 2.7] minutes per allele, P=1.2x10-9; and 1.6 [95% CI: 1.1, 2.2] minutes per allele, P=7.6x10-9). Although we found genetic correlation between chronotype and BMI (rG=0.056, P=0.048); undersleeping and BMI (rG=0.147, P=1x10-5) and oversleeping and BMI (rG=0.097, P=0.039), Mendelian Randomisation analyses provided no consistent evidence of causal associations between BMI or type 2 diabetes and chronotype or sleep duration. Our study provides new insights into the biology of sleep and circadian rhythms in humans.
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