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Draft Genome Assemblies and Annotations of Agrypnia vestita Walker, and Hesperophylax magnus Banks Reveal Substantial Repetitive Element Expansion in Tube Case-making Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera)

By Lindsey K. Olsen, Jacqueline Heckenhauer, John S. Sproul, Rebecca B. Dikow, Vanessa L Gonzalez, Matthew P. Kweskin, Adam M. Taylor, Seth B. Wilson, Russell J. Stewart, Xin Zhou, Ralph Holzenthal, Steffen U. Pauls, Paul B. Frandsen

Posted 17 Nov 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.11.16.381806

Trichoptera (caddisflies) play an essential role in freshwater ecosystems; for instance, larvae process organic material from the water and are food for a variety of predators. Knowledge on the genomic diversity of caddisflies can facilitate comparative and phylogenetic studies thereby allowing scientists to better understand the evolutionary history of caddisflies. While Trichoptera are the most diverse aquatic insect order, they remain poorly represented in terms of genomic resources. To date, all long-read based genomes have been sequenced from individuals in the retreat-making suborder, Annulipalpia, leaving ~275 Ma of evolution without high-quality genomic resources. Here, we report the first long-read based de novo genome assemblies of two tube case-making Trichoptera from the suborder Integripalpia, Agrypnia vestita Walker and Hesperophylax magnus Banks. We find that these tube case-making caddisflies have genome sizes that are at least three fold larger than those of currently sequenced annulipalpian genomes and that this pattern is at least partly driven by major expansion of repetitive elements. In H. magnus , long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) alone exceed the entire genome size of some annulipalpian counterparts suggesting that caddisflies have high potential as a model for understanding genome size evolution in diverse insect lineages. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

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