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Prevalence, phenotype and architecture of developmental disorders caused by de novo mutation

By Jeremy F McRae, Stephen Clayton, Tomas W Fitzgerald, Joanna Kaplanis, Elena Prigmore, Diana Rajan, Alejandro Sifrim, Stuart Aitken, Nadia Akawi, Mohsan Alvi, Kirsty Ambridge, Daniel M Barrett, Tanya Bayzetinova, Philip Jones, Wendy D Jones, Daniel King, Netravathi Krishnappa, Laura E Mason, Tarjinder Singh, Adrian R Tivey, Munaza Ahmed, Uruj Anjum, Hayley Archer, Ruth Armstrong, Jana Awada, Meena Balasubramanian, Siddharth Banka, Diana Baralle, Angela Barnicoat, Paul Batstone, David Baty, Chris Bennett, Jonathan Berg, Birgitta Bernhard, A Paul Bevan, Maria Bitner-Glindzicz, Edward Blair, Moira Blyth, David Bohanna, Louise Bourdon, David Bourn, Lisa Bradley, Angela Brady, Simon Brent, Carole Brewer, Kate Brunstrom, David J Bunyan, John Burn, Natalie Canham, Bruce Castle, Kate Chandler, Elena Chatzimichali, Deirdre Cilliers, Angus Clarke, Susan Clasper, Jill Clayton-Smith, Virginia Clowes, Andrea Coates, Trevor Cole, Irina Colgiu, Amanda Collins, Morag N Collinson, Fiona Connell, Nicola Cooper, Helen Cox, Lara Cresswell, Gareth Cross, Yanick Crow, Mariella D'Alessandro, Tabib Dabir, Rosemarie Davidson, Sally Davies, Dylan de Vries, John Dean, Charu Deshpande, Gemma Devlin, Abhijit Dixit, Angus Dobbie, Alan Donaldson, Dian Donnai, Deirdre Donnelly, Carina Donnelly, Angela Douglas, Sofia Douzgou, Alexis Duncan, Jacqueline Eason, Sian Ellard, Ian Ellis, Frances Elmslie, Karenza Evans, Sarah Everest, Tina Fendick, Richard Fisher, Frances Flinter, Nicola Foulds, Andrew Fry, Alan Fryer, Carol Gardiner, Lorraine Gaunt, Neeti Ghali, Richard Gibbons, Harinder Gill, Judith Goodship, David Goudie, Emma Gray, Andrew Green, Philip Greene, Lynn Greenhalgh, Susan Gribble, Rachel Harrison, Lucy Harrison, Victoria Harrison, Rose Hawkins, Liu He, Stephen Hellens, Alex Henderson, Sarah Hewitt, Lucy Hildyard, Emma Hobson, Simon Holden, Muriel Holder, Susan Holder, Georgina Hollingsworth, Tessa Homfray, Mervyn Humphreys, Jane Hurst, Ben Hutton, Stuart Ingram, Melita Irving, Lily Islam, Andrew Jackson, Joanna Jarvis, Lucy Jenkins, Diana Johnson, Elizabeth Jones, Dragana Josifova, Shelagh Joss, Beckie Kaemba, Sandra Kazembe, Rosemary Kelsell, Bronwyn Kerr, Helen Kingston, Usha Kini, Esther Kinning, Gail Kirby, Claire Kirk, Emma Kivuva, Alison Kraus, Dhavendra Kumar, V.K Ajith Kumar, Katherine Lachlan, Wayne Lam, Anne Lampe, Caroline Langman, Melissa Lees, Derek Lim, Cheryl Longman, Gordon Lowther, Sally A Lynch, Alex Magee, Eddy Maher, Alison Male, Sahar Mansour, Karen Marks, Katherine Martin, Una Maye, Emma McCann, Vivienne McConnell, Meriel McEntagart, Ruth McGowan, Kirsten McKay, Shane McKee, Dominic J McMullan, Susan McNerlan, Catherine McWilliam, Sarju Mehta, Kay Metcalfe, Anna Middleton, Zosia Miedzybrodzka, Emma Miles, Shehla Mohammed, Tara Montgomery, David Moore, Sian Morgan, Jenny Morton, Hood Mugalaasi, Victoria Murday, Helen Murphy, Swati Naik, Andrea Nemeth, Louise Nevitt, Ruth Newbury-Ecob, Andrew Norman, Rosie O'Shea, Caroline Ogilvie, Kai-Ren Ong, Soo-Mi Park, Michael J Parker, Chirag Patel, Joan Paterson, Stewart Payne, Daniel Perrett, Julie Phipps, Daniela T Pilz, Martin Pollard, Caroline Pottinger, Joanna Poulton, Norman Pratt, Katrina Prescott, Sue Price, Abigail Pridham, Annie Procter, Hellen Purnell, Oliver Quarrell, Nicola Ragge, Raheleh Rahbari, Josh Randall, Julia Rankin, Lucy Raymond, Debbie Rice, Leema Robert, Eileen Roberts, Jonathan Roberts, Paul Roberts, Gillian Roberts, Alison Ross, Elisabeth Rosser, Anand Saggar, Shalaka Samant, Julian Sampson, Richard Sandford, Ajoy Sarkar, Susann Schweiger, Richard Scott, Ingrid Scurr, Ann Selby, Anneke Seller, Cheryl Sequeira, Nora Shannon, Saba Sharif, Charles Shaw-Smith, Emma Shearing, Debbie Shears, Eamonn Sheridan, Ingrid Simonic, Roldan Singzon, Zara Skitt, Audrey Smith, Kath Smith, Sarah Smithson, Linda Sneddon, Miranda Splitt, Miranda Squires, Fiona Stewart, Helen Stewart, Volker Straub, Mohnish Suri, Vivienne Sutton, Ganesh Jawahar Swaminathan, Elizabeth Sweeney, Kate Tatton-Brown, Cat Taylor, Rohan Taylor, Mark Tein, I Karen Temple, Jenny Thomson, Marc Tischkowitz, Susan Tomkins, Audrey Torokwa, Becky Treacy, Claire Turner, Peter Turnpenny, Carolyn Tysoe, Anthony Vandersteen, Vinod Varghese, Pradeep Vasudevan, Parthiban Vijayarangakannan, Julie Vogt, Emma Wakeling, Sarah Wallwark, Jonathon Waters, Astrid Weber, Diana Wellesley, Margo Whiteford, Sara Widaa, Sarah Wilcox, Emily Wilkinson, Denise Williams, Nicola Williams, Louise Wilson, Geoff Woods, Christopher Wragg, Michael Wright, Laura Yates, Michael Yau, Chris Nellaker, Helen V Firth, Caroline F Wright, David R FitzPatrick, Jeffrey C Barrett, Matthew E Hurles

Posted 20 Apr 2016
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/049056

Individuals with severe, undiagnosed developmental disorders (DDs) are enriched for damaging de novo mutations (DNMs) in developmentally important genes. We exome sequenced 4,293 families with individuals with DDs, and meta-analysed these data with published data on 3,287 individuals with similar disorders. We show that the most significant factors influencing the diagnostic yield of de novo mutations are the sex of the affected individual, the relatedness of their parents and the age of both father and mother. We identified 94 genes enriched for damaging de novo mutation at genome-wide significance (P < 7 x 10-7), including 14 genes for which compelling data for causation was previously lacking. We have characterised the phenotypic diversity among these genetic disorders. We demonstrate that, at current cost differentials, exome sequencing has much greater power than genome sequencing for novel gene discovery in genetically heterogeneous disorders. We estimate that 42% of our cohort carry pathogenic DNMs (single nucleotide variants and indels) in coding sequences, with approximately half operating by a loss-of-function mechanism, and the remainder resulting in altered-function (e.g. activating, dominant negative). We established that most haplo insufficient developmental disorders have already been identified, but that many altered-function disorders remain to be discovered. Extrapolating from the DDD cohort to the general population, we estimate that developmental disorders caused by DNMs have an average birth prevalence of 1 in 213 to 1 in 448 (0.22-0.47% of live births), depending on parental age.

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