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Mycobacterium tuberculosis lung infection results in a complex multicellular structure, the granuloma. In some granulomas, immune activity promotes bacterial clearance; in others, bacteria persist and grow. We identified correlates of bacterial control in cynomolgus macaque lung granulomas by co-registering longitudinal PET-CT imaging, single-cell RNA-sequencing, and measures of bacterial clearance. We find that bacterial persistence occurs in granulomas enriched for mast, endothelial, fibroblast and plasma cells, signaling amongst themselves via Type II immunity and wound healing pathways. In contrast, these interactions are largely absent in granulomas that drive bacterial control, which are often those that form later in the course of infection; these restrictive lesions are characterized by cellular ecosystems enriched for Type1-Type17, stem-like, and cytotoxic T cells engaged in pro-inflammatory signaling networks that involve diverse myeloid and non-immune cell populations. There is also a temporal aspect to bacterial control, in that granulomas that arise later in infection (in the context of an established immune response) share the functional characteristics of restrictive granulomas and are more capable of killing Mtb. Taken together, our results define the complex multicellular ecosystems underlying (lack of) granuloma resolution and highlight host immune targets that can be leveraged to develop new vaccine and therapeutic strategies for TB.

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