The ability to discriminate between stimuli relies on a chain of neural operations associated with perception, memory and decision-making. Accumulating studies show learning-dependent plasticity in perception or decision-making, yet whether perceptual learning modifies mnemonic processing remains unclear. Here, we trained participants on an orientation discrimination task, while using fMRI and TMS to separately examine training-induced changes in working memory (WM) representation. Although fMRI decoding revealed orientation-specific neural patterns during delay period in early visual cortex (V1) before, but not after, training, neurodisruption of V1 during delay period led to behavioral deficit in both phases. In contrast, both fMRI decoding and disruptive effect of TMS showed that intraparietal sulcus (IPS) represent WM content after, but not before, training. These results suggest that sensory engagement for WM is relatively independent of training but the coding format may be altered, whereas the involvement of parietal area in WM depends on training. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.
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