Dietary suppression of MHC-II expression in intestinal stem cells enhances intestinal tumorigenesis
Khristian E. Bauer-Rowe,
Michael E. Xifaras,
Deniz M. Özata,
James G Fox,
Christoph A. Thaiss,
Stuart H. Orkin,
Ömer H. Yilmaz
Posted 08 Sep 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.09.05.284174
Posted 08 Sep 2020
Little is known about how interactions between diet, immune recognition, and intestinal stem cells (ISCs) impact the early steps of intestinal tumorigenesis. Here, we show that a high fat diet (HFD) reduces the expression of the major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II) genes in ISCs. This decline in ISC MHC-II expression in a HFD correlates with an altered intestinal microbiome composition and is recapitulated in antibiotic treated and germ-free mice on a control diet. Mechanistically, pattern recognition receptor and IFNg signaling regulate MHC-II expression in ISCs. Although MHC-II expression on ISCs is dispensable for stem cell function in organoid cultures in vitro , upon loss of the tumor suppressor gene Apc in a HFD, MHC-II- ISCs harbor greater in vivo tumor-initiating capacity than their MHC-II+ counterparts, thus implicating a role for epithelial MHC-II in suppressing tumorigenesis. Finally, ISC-specific genetic ablation of MHC-II in engineered Apc -mediated intestinal tumor models increases tumor burden in a cell autonomous manner. These findings highlight how a HFD alters the immune recognition properties of ISCs through the regulation of MHC-II expression in a manner that could contribute to intestinal tumorigenesis. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.
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