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Scalable, multimodal profiling of chromatin accessibility and protein levels in single cells

By Eleni P. Mimitou, Caleb A. Lareau, Kelvin Y. Chen, Andre L. Zorzetto-Fernandes, Yusuke Takeshima, Wendy Luo, Tse-Shun Huang, Bertrand Yeung, Pratiksha I. Thakore, James Badger Wing, Kristopher L. Nazor, Shimon Sakaguchi, Leif S. Ludwig, Vijay G. Sankaran, Aviv Regev, Peter Smibert

Posted 08 Sep 2020
bioRxiv DOI: 10.1101/2020.09.08.286914

Recent technological advances have enabled massively parallel chromatin profiling with single-cell Assay for Transposase Accessible Chromatin by sequencing (scATAC-seq) in thousands of individual cells. Here, we extend these approaches and present ATAC with Select Antigen Profiling by sequencing, ASAP-seq, a tool to simultaneously profile accessible chromatin and protein levels in thousands of single cells. Our approach pairs sparse scATAC-seq data with robust detection of hundreds of cell surface and intracellular protein markers and optional capture of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) for clonal tracking, thus concomitantly capturing three distinct modalities in single cells. Importantly, ASAP-seq uses a novel bridging approach that repurposes antibody:oligo conjugates designed for existing technologies that pair protein measurements with single cell RNA-seq. We demonstrate the utility of ASAP-seq by revealing coordinated and distinct changes in chromatin, RNA, and surface proteins during native hematopoietic differentiation, peripheral blood mononuclear cell stimulation, and as a combinatorial decoder and reporter of multiplexed perturbations in primary T cells. ### Competing Interest Statement COMPETING INTERESTS PS is listed as co-inventor on a patent related to this work (US provisional patent application 62/515-180). CAL, LSL, VGS, and AR are listed as co-inventors on a patent related to mtscATAC-seq (US provisional patent application 62/683,502). A.R. is a founder and equity holder of Celsius Therapeutics, an equity holder in Immunitas Therapeutics and until August 31, 2020 was an SAB member of Syros Pharmaceuticals, Neogene Therapeutics, Asimov and ThermoFisher Scientific. From August 1, 2020, A.R. is an employee of Genentech.

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