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Most downloaded papers related to "ivan baxter," all time
in category plant biology
16 results found. For more information, click each entry to expand.
2,040 downloads plant biology
Plant interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have long attracted interest for their potential to promote more efficient use of mineral resources in agriculture. Their widespread use, however, remains limited by understanding of the processes that determine the outcome of the symbiosis. In this study, variation in growth response to mycorrhizal inoculation was characterized in a panel of diverse maize lines. A panel of thirty maize lines was evaluated with and without inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. The line Oh43 was identified to show superior response and, along with five other reference lines, was characterized in greater detail in a split-compartment system, using 33P to quantify mycorrhizal phosphorus uptake. Changes in relative growth between non-inoculated and inoculated plants indicated variation in host capacity to profit from the symbiosis. Shoot phosphate content, abundance of intra-radical and root-external fungal structures, mycorrhizal phosphorus uptake, and accumulation of transcripts encoding plant PHT1 family phosphate transporters varied among lines. Larger growth responses in Oh43 were correlated with extensive development of root-external hyphae, accumulation of specific Pht1 transcripts and a high level of mycorrhizal phosphorus uptake. The data indicate that host genetic factors influence fungal growth strategy with an impact on plant performance.
1,328 downloads plant biology
Understanding the mechanisms underlying plants' adaptation to their environment will require knowledge of the genes and alleles underlying elemental composition. Modern genetics is capable of quickly, and cheaply indicating which regions of DNA are associated with particular phenotypes in question, but most genes remain poorly annotated, hindering the identification of candidate genes. To help identify candidate genes underlying elemental accumulations, we have created the known ionome gene (KIG) list: a curated collection of genes experimentally shown to change uptake, accumulation, and distribution of elements. We have also created an automated computational pipeline to generate lists of KIG orthologs in other plant species using the PhytoMine database. The current version of KIG consists of 176 known genes covering 5 species, 23 elements and their 1588 orthologs in 10 species. Analysis of the known genes demonstrated that most were identified in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and that transporter coding genes and genes altering the accumulation of iron and zinc are overrepresented in the current list. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.
1,326 downloads plant biology
Plants obtain soil-resident elements that support growth and metabolism via water-mediated flow facilitated by transpiration and active transport processes. The availability of elements in the environment interact with the genetic capacity of organisms to modulate element uptake through plastic adaptive responses, such as homeostasis. These interactions should cause the elemental contents of plants to vary such that the effects of genetic polymorphisms influencing elemental accumulation will be dramatically dependent on the environment in which the plant is grown. To investigate genotype by environment interactions underlying elemental accumulation, we analyzed levels of elements in maize kernels of the Intermated B73 x Mo17 (IBM) recombinant inbred population grown in 10 different environments spanning a total of six locations and five different years. In analyses conducted separately for each environment, we identified a total of 79 quantitative trait loci controlling seed elemental accumulation. While a set of these QTL were found in multiple environments, the majority were specific to a single environment, suggesting the presence of genetic by environment interactions. To specifically identify and quantify QTL by environment interactions (QEIs), we implemented two methods: linear modeling with environmental covariates and QTL analysis on trait differences between growouts. With these approaches, we found several instances of QEI, indicating that elemental profiles are highly heritable, interrelated, and responsive to the environment.
1,069 downloads plant biology
Genetic selection for whole plant water use efficiency (yield per transpiration; WUEplant) in any crop-breeding program requires high throughput phenotyping of component traits of WUEplant such as transpiration efficiency (TEi; CO2 assimilation rate per stomatal conductance). Leaf carbon stable isotope composition ( δ13Cleaf) has been suggested as a potential proxy for WUEplant because both parameters are influenced by TEi. However, a genetic link between δ13Cleaf and WUEplant in a C4 species is still not well understood. Therefore, a high throughput phenotyping facility was used to measure WUEplant in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of the C4 grasses Setaria viridis and S. italica to determine the genetic relationship between δ13Cleaf, WUEplant, and TEi under well-watered and water-limited growth conditions. Three quantitative trait loci (QTL) for δ13Cleaf were found to co-localize with transpiration, biomass accumulation, and WUEplant. WUEplant calculated for each of the three δ13Cleaf allele classes was negatively correlated with δ13Cleaf as would be predicted when TEi is driving WUEplant. These results demonstrate that δ13Cleaf is genetically linked to WUEplant through TEi and can be used as a high throughput proxy to screen for WUEplant in these C4 species.
1,054 downloads plant biology
Although soybean seeds appear homogeneous, their composition (protein, oil and mineral concentrations) can vary significantly with the canopy position where they were produced. In studies with 10 cultivars grown over a 3-yr period, we found that seeds produced at the top of the canopy have higher concentrations of protein but less oil and lower concentrations of minerals such as Mg, Fe, and Cu compared to seeds produced at the bottom of the canopy. Among cultivars, mean protein concentration (average of different positions) correlated positively with mean concentrations of S, Zn and Fe, but not other minerals. Therefore, on a whole plant basis, the uptake and allocation of S, Zn and Fe to seeds correlated with the production and allocation of reduced N to seed protein; however, the reduced N and correlated minerals (S, Zn and Fe) showed different patterns of allocation among node positions. For example, while mean concentrations of protein and Fe correlated positively, the two parameters correlated negatively in terms of variation with canopy position. Altering the microenvironment within the soybean canopy by removing neighboring plants at flowering increased protein concentration in particular at lower node positions and thus altered the node-position gradient in protein (and oil) without altering the distribution of Mg, Fe and Cu, suggesting different underlying control mechanisms. Metabolomic analysis of developing seeds at different positions in the canopy suggests that availability of free asparagine may be a positive determinant of storage protein accumulation in seeds and may explain the increased protein accumulation in seeds produced at the top of the canopy. Our results establish node-position variation in seed constituents and provide a new experimental system to identify genes controlling key aspects of seed composition. In addition, our results provide an unexpected and simple approach to link agronomic practices to improve human nutrition and health in developing countries because food products produced from seeds at the bottom of the canopy contained higher Fe concentrations than products from the top of the canopy. Therefore, using seeds produced in the lower canopy for production of iron-rich soy foods for human consumption could be important when plants are the major source of protein and human diets can be chronically deficient in Fe and other minerals.
818 downloads plant biology
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a rapidly growing, high-biomass crop prized for abiotic stress tolerance. However, measuring genotype-by-environment (G x E) interactions remains a progress bottleneck. Here we describe strategies for identifying shape, color and ionomic indicators of plant nitrogen use efficiency. We subjected a panel of 30 genetically diverse sorghum genotypes to a spectrum of nitrogen deprivation and measured responses using high-throughput phenotyping technology followed by ionomic profiling. Responses were quantified using shape (16 measurable outputs), color (hue and intensity) and ionome (18 elements). We measured the speed at which specific genotypes respond to environmental conditions, both in terms of biomass and color changes, and identified individual genotypes that perform most favorably. With this analysis we present a novel approach to quantifying color-based stress indicators over time. Additionally, ionomic profiling was conducted as an independent, low cost and high throughput option for characterizing G x E, identifying the elements most affected by either genotype or treatment and suggesting signaling that occurs in response to the environment. This entire dataset and associated scripts are made available through an open access, user-friendly, web-based interface. In summary, this work provides analysis tools for visualizing and quantifying plant abiotic stress responses over time. These methods can be deployed as a time-efficient method of dissecting the genetic mechanisms used by sorghum to respond to the environment to accelerate crop improvement.
799 downloads plant biology
Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is an ancient interaction between plants and fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota. In exchange for photosynthetically fixed carbon, the fungus provides the plant host with greater access to soil nutrients via an extensive network of root-external hyphae. Here, to determine the impact of the symbiosis on the host ionome, the concentration of nineteen elements was determined in the roots and leaves of a panel of thirty maize varieties, grown under phosphorus limiting conditions, with, or without, inoculation with the fungus Funneliformis mosseae. Although the most recognized benefit of the symbiosis to the host plant is greater access to soil phosphorus, the concentration of a number of other elements responded significantly to inoculation across the panel as a whole. In addition, variety-specific effects indicated the importance of plant genotype to the response. Clusters of elements were identified that varied in a coordinated manner across genotypes, and that were maintained between non-inoculated and inoculated plants.
661 downloads plant biology
Elemental accumulation in seeds is the product of a combination of environment and a wide variety of genetically controlled physiological processes. We measured the kernel elemental composition of the Nested Association Mapping (NAM) of maize (Zea mays L.) grown in 4 different environments. Analysis of variance revealed strong effects of genotype, environment and genotype by environment interactions. Using Joint-linkage mapping on a set of 7000 markers we identified 354 quantitative trait loci (QTL) across 20 elements, four environments and a combination of the environments. Leveraging 20 M SNPs derived from genome resequencing on the parents of the population, genome-wide association mapping studies (GWAS) detected 8573 loci. While most of the GWAS SNPs were located near genes not previously implicated in elemental regulation, several SNPs were located next to orthologs of well-characterized elemental regulation genes
631 downloads plant biology
Plant growth and water use are interrelated processes influenced by the genetic control of both plant morphological and biochemical characteristics. Improving plant water use efficiency (WUE) to sustain growth in different environments is an important breeding objective that can improve crop yields and enhance agricultural sustainability. However, genetic improvements of WUE using traditional methods have proven difficult due to low throughput and environmental heterogeneity encountered in field settings. To overcome these limitations the study presented here utilizes a high-throughput phenotyping platform to quantify plant size and water use of an interspecific Setaria italica x Setaria viridis recombinant inbred line population at daily intervals in both well-watered and water-limited conditions. Our findings indicate that measurements of plant size and water use in this system are strongly correlated; therefore, a linear modeling approach was used to partition this relationship into predicted values of plant size given water use and deviations from this relationship at the genotype level. The resulting traits describing plant size, water use and WUE were all heritable and responsive to soil water availability, allowing for a genetic dissection of the components of plant WUE under different watering treatments. Linkage mapping identified major loci underlying two different pleiotropic components of WUE. This study indicates that alleles controlling WUE derived from both wild and domesticated accessions of the model C4 species Setaria can be utilized to predictably modulate trait values given a specified precipitation regime.
614 downloads plant biology
Vertical growth of plants is a dynamic process that is influenced by genetic and environmental factors and has a pronounced effect on overall plant architecture and biomass composition. We have performed twelve controlled growth trials of an interspecific Setaria italica x Setaria viridis recombinant inbred line population to assess how the genetic architecture of plant height is influenced by developmental queues, water availability and planting density. The non-destructive nature of plant height measurements has enabled us to monitor vertical growth throughout the plant life cycle in both field and controlled environments. We find that plant height is reduced under water limitation and high density planting and affected by growth environment (field vs. growth chamber). The results support a model where plant height is a heritable, polygenic trait and that the major genetic loci that influence plant height function independent of growth environment. The identity and contribution of loci that influence height changes dynamically throughout development and the reduction of growth observed in water limited environments is a consequence of delayed progression through the genetic program which establishes plant height in Setaria. In this population, alleles inherited from the weedy S. viridis parent act to increase plant height early, whereas a larger number of small effect alleles inherited from the domesticated S. italica parent collectively act to increase plant height later in development.
461 downloads plant biology
Above-ground biomass production is a key target for studies of crop abiotic stress tolerance, disease resistance and yield improvement. However, biomass is slow and laborious to evaluate in the field using traditional destructive methods. High-throughput phenotyping (HTP) is widely promoted as a potential solution that can rapidly and non-destructively assess plant traits by exploiting advances in sensor and computing technology. A key potential application of HTP is for quantitative genetics studies that identify loci where allelic variation is associated with variation in crop production. And, the value of performing such studies in the field, where environmental conditions match that of production farming, is recognized. To date, HTP of biomass productivity in field trials has largely focused on expensive and complex methods, which — even if successful — will limit their use to a subset of wealthy research institutions and companies with extensive research infrastructure and highly-trained personnel. Even with investment in ground vehicles, aerial vehicles and gantry systems ranging from thousands to millions of dollars, there are very few examples where Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) detected by HTP of biomass production in a field-grown crop are shown to match QTLs detected by direct measures of biomass traits by destructive harvest techniques. Until such proof of concept for HTP proxies is generated it is unlikely to replace existing technology and be widely adopted. Therefore, there is a need for methods that can be used to assess crop performance by small teams with limited training and at field sites that are remote or have limited infrastructure. Here we use an inexpensive and simple, miniaturized system of hemispherical imaging and light attenuation modeling to identify the same set of key QTLs for biomass production as traditional destructive harvest methods applied to a field-grown Setaria mapping population. This provides a case study of a HTP technology that can deliver results for QTL mapping without high costs or complexity.
430 downloads plant biology
Iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) deficiencies are a global human health problem that may worsen by growth of crops at elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (eCO2). However, climate change will also involve higher temperature, but it is unclear how the combined effect of eCO2 and higher temperature will affect the nutritional quality of food crops. To begin to address this question, we grew soybean (Glycine max) in a Temperature by Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (T-FACE) experiment in 2014 and 2015 under ambient (400 μmol mol-1) and elevated (600 μmol mol-1) CO2 concentration and under ambient and elevated temperatures (+2.7 °C day and +3.4°C at night). In our study, eCO2 significantly decreased Fe concentration in soybean seeds in both seasons (-8.7% and -7.7%) and Zn concentration in one season (-8.9%) while higher temperature (at ambient CO2 concentration) had the opposite effect. The combination of eCO2 with elevated temperature generally restored seed Fe and Zn concentrations to levels obtained under ambient CO2 and temperature conditions, suggesting that the potential threat to human nutrition by increasing CO2 concentration may not be realized. In general, seed Fe concentration was negatively correlated with yield suggesting inherent limitations to increasing seed Fe. In addition, we confirm our previous report that the concentration of seed storage products and several minerals varies with node position at which the seeds developed. Overall, these results demonstrate the complexity of predicting climate change effects on food security when various environmental parameters change in an interactive manner.
382 downloads plant biology
Sorghum bicolor is a promising cellulosic feedstock crop for bioenergy because of its potential for high biomass yields. However, in its early growth phases, sorghum is sensitive to cold stress, preventing early planting in temperate environments. Cold temperature adaptability is vital for the successful cultivation of both bioenergy and grain sorghum at higher latitudes and elevations, and for early season planting or to extend the growing season. Identification of genes and alleles that enhance biomass accumulation of sorghum grown under early cold stress would enable the development of improved bioenergy sorghum through breeding or genetic engineering. We conducted image-based phenotyping on 369 accessions from the sorghum Bioenergy Association Panel (BAP) in a controlled environment with early cold treatment. The BAP is a collection of densely genotyped and racially, geographically, and phenotypically diverse accessions. The plants were weighed, watered, and imaged daily to measure growth dynamics and water use efficiency (WUE). Daily, non-destructive imaging allowed for a temporal analysis of growth-related traits in response to cold stress. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify candidate genomic intervals and genes controlling response to early cold stress. GWAS identified transient quantitative trait loci (QTL) strongly associated with each growth-related trait, permitting an investigation into the genetic basis of cold stress response at different stages of development. The analysis identified a priori and novel candidate genes associated with growth-related traits and the temporal response to cold stress.
297 downloads plant biology
Plants obtain elements from the soil through genetic and biochemical pathways responsive to physiological state and environment. Most perturbations affect multiple elements which leads the ionome, the full complement of mineral nutrients in an organism, to vary as an integrated network rather than a set of distinct single elements. To examine the genetic basis of covariation in the accumulation of multiple elements, we analyzed maize kernel ionomes from Intermated B73 x Mo17 (IBM) recombinant inbred populations grown in 10 environments. We compared quantitative trait loci (QTL) determining single-element variation to QTL that predict variation in principal components (PCs) of multiple-element covariance. Single-element and multivariate approaches detected partially overlapping sets of loci. In addition to loci co-localizing with single-element QTL, multivariate traits within environments were controlled by loci with significant multi-element effects not detectable using single-element traits. Gene-by-environment interactions underlying multiple-element covariance were identified through QTL analyses of principal component models of ionome variation. In addition to interactive effects, growth environment had a profound effect on the elemental profiles and multi-element phenotypes were significantly correlated with specific environmental variables.
154 downloads plant biology
With increased demand on freshwater resources for agriculture, it is imperative that more water-use efficient crops are developed. Leaf stable carbon isotope composition, δ13C, is a proxy for transpiration efficiency and a possible tool for breeders, but the underlying mechanisms effecting δ13C in C4 plants are not known. It has been suggested that differences in specific leaf area, which potentially reflects variation in internal CO2 diffusion, can impact leaf δ13C. However, at this point the relationship has not been tested in maize. Furthermore, although it is known that water movement is important for elemental uptake, it is not clear how manipulation of transpiration for increased water-use efficiency may impact nutrient accumulation. Here we characterize the underlying genetic architecture of leaf δ13C and test its relationship to specific leaf area and the ionome in four biparental populations of maize. Five significant QTL for leaf δ13C were identified, including both novel QTL as well as some that were identified previously in maize kernels. One of the QTL regions contains an Erecta-like gene, the ortholog of which has been shown to regulate transpiration efficiency and leaf δ13C in Arabidopsis . Our data does not support a relationship between δ13C and specific leaf area, and of the 19 elements analyzed, only a weak correlation between molybdenum and δ13C was detected. Together these data begin to build a genetic understanding of leaf δ13C in maize and suggest the potential to improve plant water use without significantly influencing elemental homeostasis.
54 downloads plant biology
Mechanistic modeling indicates that stomatal conductance could be reduced to improve water use efficiency (WUE) in C4 crops. Genetic variation in stomatal density and canopy temperature was evaluated in the model C4 genus, Setaria. Recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a Setaria italica x Setaria viridis cross were grown with ample or limiting water supply under field conditions in Illinois. An optical profilometer was used to rapidly assess stomatal patterning and canopy temperature was measured using infrared imaging. Stomatal density and canopy temperature were positively correlated but both were negatively correlated with total above-ground biomass. These trait relationships suggest a likely interaction between stomatal density and the other drivers of water use such as stomatal size and aperture. Multiple QTLs were identified for stomatal density and canopy temperature, including co-located QTLs on chromosomes 5 and 9. The direction of the additive effect of these QTLs on chromosome 5 and 9 were in accordance with the positive phenotypic relationship between these two traits. This suggests a common genetic architecture between stomatal patterning in the greenhouse and canopy transpiration in the field, while highlighting the potential of setaria as a model to understand the physiology and genetics of WUE in C4 species.
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