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Currently indexing 76,920 bioRxiv papers from 333,655 authors.

Most downloaded bioRxiv papers, since beginning of last month

Results 1 through 20 out of 75500

 

1: Uncanny similarity of unique inserts in the 2019-nCoV spike protein to HIV-1 gp120 and Gag

Prashant Pradhan, Ashutosh Kumar Pandey et al.

199,439 downloads (posted 31 Jan 2020) evolutionary biology

This paper has been withdrawn by its authors. They intend to revise it in response to comments received from the research community on their technical approach and their interpretation of the results. If you have any questions, please contact the corresponding author.

https://rxivist.org/papers/72514
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.30.927871

2: A human monoclonal 1 antibody blocking SARS-CoV-2 infection

Chunyan Wang, Wentao Li et al.

76,888 downloads (posted 12 Mar 2020) microbiology

The emergence of the novel human coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China has caused a worldwide epidemic of respiratory disease (COVID-19). Vaccines and targeted therapeutics for treatment of this disease are currently lacking. Here we report a human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 (and SARS-CoV). This cross-neutralizing antibody targets a communal epitope on these viruses and offers potential for prevention and treatment of COVID-19.

https://rxivist.org/papers/76533
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.11.987958

3: A SARS-CoV-2-Human Protein-Protein Interaction Map Reveals Drug Targets and Potential Drug-Repurposing

David E Gordon, Gwendolyn M. Jang et al.

73,522 downloads (posted 22 Mar 2020) systems biology

An outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19 respiratory disease, has infected over 290,000 people since the end of 2019, killed over 12,000, and caused worldwide social and economic disruption. There are currently no antiviral drugs with proven efficacy nor are there vaccines for its prevention. Unfortunately, the scientific community has little knowledge of the molecular details of SARS-CoV-2 infection. To illuminate this, we cloned, tagged and expressed 26 of the 29 viral proteins ...

https://rxivist.org/papers/77469
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.22.002386

4: Discovery of a novel coronavirus associated with the recent pneumonia outbreak in humans and its potential bat origin

Peng Zhou, Xing-Lou Yang et al.

54,347 downloads (posted 23 Jan 2020) microbiology

Since the SARS outbreak 18 years ago, a large number of severe acute respiratory syndrome related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoV) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats. Previous studies indicated that some of those bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans. Here we report the identification and characterization of a novel coronavirus (nCoV-2019) which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans, in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, started from December 12th, 2019, has caused 198 laborat...

https://rxivist.org/papers/71702
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.22.914952

5: Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus – The species and its viruses, a statement of the Coronavirus Study Group

Alexander E. Gorbalenya, Susan C. Baker et al.

53,881 downloads (posted 11 Feb 2020) microbiology

The present outbreak of lower respiratory tract infections, including respiratory distress syndrome, is the third spillover, in only two decades, of an animal coronavirus to humans resulting in a major epidemic. Here, the Coronavirus Study Group (CSG) of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, which is responsible for developing the official classification of viruses and taxa naming (taxonomy) of the Coronaviridae family, assessed the novelty of the human pathogen tentatively named 2019-nCoV. Based on phylog...

https://rxivist.org/papers/73529
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.07.937862

6: Single-cell RNA expression profiling of ACE2, the putative receptor of Wuhan 2019-nCov

Yu Zhao, Zixian Zhao et al.

33,836 downloads (posted 26 Jan 2020) bioinformatics

A novel coronavirus (2019-nCov) was identified in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in December of 2019. This new coronavirus has resulted in thousands of cases of lethal disease in China, with additional patients being identified in a rapidly growing number internationally. 2019-nCov was reported to share the same receptor, Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), with SARS-Cov. Here based on the public database and the state-of-the-art single-cell RNA-Seq technique, we analyzed the ACE2 RNA expression profile in the normal ...

https://rxivist.org/papers/72036
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.26.919985

7: Discovery of a 382-nt deletion during the early evolution of SARS-CoV-2

Yvonne CF Su, Danielle E. Anderson et al.

30,562 downloads (posted 12 Mar 2020) microbiology

To date, the SARS-CoV-2 genome has been considered genetically more stable than SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV. Here we report a 382-nt deletion covering almost the entire open reading frame 8 (ORF8) of SARS-CoV-2 obtained from eight hospitalized patients in Singapore. The deletion also removes the ORF8 transcription-regulatory sequence (TRS), which in turn enhances the downstream transcription of the N gene. We also found that viruses with the deletion have been circulating for at least four weeks. During the SARS-CoV outbreak i...

https://rxivist.org/papers/76572
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.11.987222

8: Reinfection could not occur in SARS-CoV-2 infected rhesus macaques

Linlin Bao, Wei Deng et al.

30,274 downloads (posted 14 Mar 2020) microbiology

An outbreak of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2), began in Wuhan and spread globally. Recently, it has been reported that discharged patients in China and elsewhere were testing positive after recovering. However, it remains unclear whether the convalescing patients have a risk of "relapse" or "reinfection". The longitudinal tracking of re-exposure after the disappeared symptoms of the SARS-CoV-2-infected monkeys was performed in this study. We f...

https://rxivist.org/papers/76736
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.13.990226

9: Cryo-EM Structure of the 2019-nCoV Spike in the Prefusion Conformation

Daniel Wrapp, Nianshuang Wang et al.

24,378 downloads (posted 15 Feb 2020) microbiology

The outbreak of a novel betacoronavirus (2019-nCov) represents a pandemic threat that has been declared a public health emergency of international concern. The CoV spike (S) glycoprotein is a key target for urgently needed vaccines, therapeutic antibodies, and diagnostics. To facilitate medical countermeasure (MCM) development we determined a 3.5 Å-resolution cryo-EM structure of the 2019-nCoV S trimer in the prefusion conformation. The predominant state of the trimer has one of the three receptor-binding domains (RBDs)...

https://rxivist.org/papers/74078
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.11.944462

10: The novel coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV) uses the SARS-coronavirus receptor ACE2 and the cellular protease TMPRSS2 for entry into target cells

Markus Hoffmann, Hannah Kleine-Weber et al.

19,850 downloads (posted 31 Jan 2020) molecular biology

The emergence of a novel, highly pathogenic coronavirus, 2019-nCoV, in China, and its rapid national and international spread pose a global health emergency. Coronaviruses use their spike proteins to select and enter target cells and insights into nCoV-2019 spike (S)-driven entry might facilitate assessment of pandemic potential and reveal therapeutic targets. Here, we demonstrate that 2019-nCoV-S uses the SARS-coronavirus receptor, ACE2, for entry and the cellular protease TMPRSS2 for 2019-nCoV-S priming. A TMPRSS2 inh...

https://rxivist.org/papers/72515
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.31.929042

11: Potent human neutralizing antibodies elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection

Bin Ju, Qi Zhang et al.

18,392 downloads (posted 25 Mar 2020) immunology

The pandemic caused by emerging coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 presents a serious global public health emergency in urgent need of prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. SARS CoV-2 cellular entry depends on binding between the viral Spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) target cell receptor. Here, we report on the isolation and characterization of 206 RBD-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) derived from single B cells of eight SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. These mAb...

https://rxivist.org/papers/77755
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.21.990770

12: Evidence of recombination in coronaviruses implicating pangolin origins of nCoV-2019

Matthew C Wong, Sara J Javornik Cregeen et al.

15,174 downloads (posted 13 Feb 2020) microbiology

A novel coronavirus (nCoV-2019) was the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness detected in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in December of 2019. Genomic analyses of nCoV-2019 determined a 96% resemblance with a coronavirus isolated from a bat in 2013 (RaTG13); however, the receptor binding motif (RBM) of these two genomes share low sequence similarity. This divergence suggests a possible alternative source for the RBM coding sequence in nCoV-2019. We identified high sequence similarity in the RBM between nCoV-2019 and ...

https://rxivist.org/papers/73741
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.07.939207

13: Identification of 2019-nCoV related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins in southern China

Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Marcus Ho-Hin Shum et al.

13,193 downloads (posted 18 Feb 2020) microbiology

The ongoing outbreak of viral pneumonia in China and beyond is associated with a novel coronavirus, provisionally termed 2019-nCoV. This outbreak has been tentatively associated with a seafood market in Wuhan, China, where the sale of wild animals may be the source of zoonotic infection. Although bats are likely reservoir hosts for 2019-nCoV, the identity of any intermediate host facilitating transfer to humans is unknown. Here, we report the identification of 2019-nCoV related coronaviruses in pangolins (Manis javanica...

https://rxivist.org/papers/74254
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.02.13.945485

14: Time-varying transmission dynamics of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia in China

Tao Liu, Jianxiong Hu et al.

12,864 downloads (posted 26 Jan 2020) systems biology

Objectives: We aimed to estimate the basic and time-varying transmission dynamics of NCP across China, and compared them with SARS. Methods: Data on NCP cases by February 7, 2020 were collected from epidemiological investigations or official websites. Data on severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) cases in Guangdong Province, Beijing and HongKong during 2002-2003 were also obtained. We estimated the doubling time, basic reproduction number (R0) and time-varying reproduction number (Rt) of NCP and SARS. Measurements an...

https://rxivist.org/papers/72040
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.25.919787

15: Full-genome evolutionary analysis of the novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) rejects the hypothesis of emergence as a result of a recent recombination event

D. Paraskevis, E.G. Kostaki et al.

11,875 downloads (posted 27 Jan 2020) microbiology

Background: A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) associated with human to human transmission and severe human infection has been recently reported from the city of Wuhan in China. Our objectives were to characterize the genetic relationships of the 2019-nCoV and to search for putative recombination within the subgenus of sarbecovirus. Methods: Putative recombination was investigated by RDP4 and Simplot v3.5.1 and discordant phylogenetic clustering in individual genomic fragments was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis using m...

https://rxivist.org/papers/72080
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.26.920249

16: Identification of antiviral drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2 from FDA-approved drugs

Sangeun Jeon, Meehyun Ko et al.

11,609 downloads (posted 20 Mar 2020) microbiology

COVID-19 is an emerging infectious disease and was recently declared as a pandemic by WHO. Currently, there is no vaccine or therapeutic available for this disease. Drug repositioning represents the only feasible option to address this global challenge and a panel of 48 FDA-approved drugs that have been pre-selected by an assay of SARS-CoV was screened to identify potential antiviral drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2 infection. We found a total of 24 drugs which exhibited antiviral efficacy (0.1 μM < IC50 < 10 μM) agai...

https://rxivist.org/papers/77407
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.20.999730

17: An integrated brain-machine interface platform with thousands of channels

Elon Musk, Neuralink

10,353 downloads (posted 17 Jul 2019) neuroscience

Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) hold promise for the restoration of sensory and motor function and the treatment of neurological disorders, but clinical BMIs have not yet been widely adopted, in part because modest channel counts have limited their potential. In this white paper, we describe Neuralink’s first steps toward a scalable high-bandwidth BMI system. We have built arrays of small and flexible electrode “threads”, with as many as 3,072 electrodes per array distributed across 96 threads. We have also built a neur...

https://rxivist.org/papers/55953
https://doi.org/10.1101/703801

18: Aerodynamic Characteristics and RNA Concentration of SARS-CoV-2 Aerosol in Wuhan Hospitals during COVID-19 Outbreak

Yuan Liu, Zhi Ning et al.

9,811 downloads (posted 10 Mar 2020) microbiology

Background: The ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 has spread rapidly and sparked global concern. While the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through human respiratory droplets and contact with infected persons is clear, the aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 has been little studied. Methods: Thirty-five aerosol samples of three different types (total suspended particle, size segregated and deposition aerosol) were collected in Patient Areas (PAA) and Medical Staff Areas (MSA) of Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University (Renmin) and Wuch...

https://rxivist.org/papers/76328
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.08.982637

19: SARS-CoV-2 invades host cells via a novel route: CD147-spike protein

Ke Wang, Wei Chen et al.

9,519 downloads (posted 14 Mar 2020) microbiology

Currently, COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been widely spread around the world; nevertheless, so far there exist no specific antiviral drugs for treatment of the disease, which poses great challenge to control and contain the virus. Here, we reported a research finding that SARS-CoV-2 invaded host cells via a novel route of CD147-spike protein (SP). SP bound to CD147, a receptor on the host cells, thereby mediating the viral invasion. Our further research confirmed thi...

https://rxivist.org/papers/76744
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.14.988345

20: A mysterious 80 nm amoeba virus with a near-complete "ORFan genome" challenges the classification of DNA viruses

Paulo V. M. Boratto, Graziele P. Oliveira et al.

9,258 downloads (posted 28 Jan 2020) microbiology

Here we report the discovery of Yaravirus, a new lineage of amoebal virus with a puzzling origin and phylogeny. Yaravirus presents 80 nm-sized particles and a 44,924 bp dsDNA genome encoding for 74 predicted proteins. More than 90% (68) of Yaravirus predicted genes have never been described before, representing ORFans. Only six genes had distant homologs in public databases: an exonuclease/recombinase, a packaging-ATPase, a bifunctional DNA primase/polymerase and three hypothetical proteins. Furthermore, we were not abl...

https://rxivist.org/papers/72245
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.28.923185