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Rxivist combines preprints from bioRxiv with data from Twitter to help you find the papers being discussed in your field. Currently indexing 89,763 bioRxiv papers from 384,469 authors.

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in category scientific communication and education

602 results found. For more information, click each entry to expand.

561: Quantifying subclinical and longitudinal microvascular changes following episcleral plaque brachytherapy (EPB) using spectral-domain OCT angiography.
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Posted to bioRxiv 02 Dec 2019

Quantifying subclinical and longitudinal microvascular changes following episcleral plaque brachytherapy (EPB) using spectral-domain OCT angiography.
133 downloads scientific communication and education

Kyle M. Green, Brian C. Toy, Bright S. Ashimatey, Debarshi Mustafi, Richard L. Jennelle, Melvin A. Astrahan, Zhongdi Chu, Ruikang K Wang, Jonathan Kim, Jesse L. Berry, Amir H. Kashani

Background: I-125 episcleral plaque brachytherapy (EPB) is standard-of-care for globe-conserving treatment of medium-sized choroidal melanomas. Radiation retinopathy is a potential consequence of treatment, characterized by deleterious effects on retinal microvasculature. We investigated the application of Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography (OCTA) for detecting and longitudinally monitoring I-125 episcleral plaque brachytherapy induced radiation retinopathy. Methods:  High resolution OCTA of the central 3x3mm macula were obtained from I-25 episcleral plaque brachytherapy treated and untreated fellow eyes of 62 patients. Capillary density (vessel skeleton density, VSD) and caliber (vessel diameter index, VDI) were quantified using previously validated semi-automated algorithms. Nonperfusion was also quantified as flow impairment regions (FIR). Exams from treated and fellow eyes obtained pre-treatment and at 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year intervals were compared using generalized estimating equation linear models. Dosimetry maps were used to evaluate spatial correlation between radiation dose and microvascular metrics. Results: Mean time from treatment to last follow-up was 10.8 months. Mean ± SD and median radiation dose at the fovea were 64.5 ± 76 Gy and 32.0 Gy, respectively. Preoperative logMAR (Snellen) mean visual acuity was 0.26 ± 0.05 (~20/35) and 0.08 ± 0.02 (~20/25) in treated and fellow eyes, respectively. At 6 months, treated eyes had significantly lower VSD (0.147 ± 0.003 vs 0.155 ± 0.002; p = 0.023) and higher FIR (1.95 ± 0.176 vs 1.45 ± 0.099; p = 0.018) compared to fellow eyes. There was a significant decrease in VSD and a corresponding increase in FIR even for treated eyes without clinically identifiable retinopathy at 6 months. VDI was significantly higher in treated eyes than in fellow eyes at 2 years (2.93 ± 0.022 vs 2.84 ± 0.016; p = 0.002). Microvascular changes were spatially correlated with a radiation gradient of 85-250 Gy across the fovea. Conclusions: OCTA can be used to quantify and monitor EPB induced radiation, and can detect vascular abnormalities even in the absence of clinically observable retinopathy. OCTA may therefore be useful in investigating treatment interventions that aim to delay EPB-induced radiation retinopathy.

562: Anti-angiogenic activities of the leaves of Tapinanthus bangwensis (Engl. and K. Krause) Danser Loranthaceae growing on three host trees in south-western Nigeria
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Posted to bioRxiv 05 Sep 2019

Anti-angiogenic activities of the leaves of Tapinanthus bangwensis (Engl. and K. Krause) Danser Loranthaceae growing on three host trees in south-western Nigeria
129 downloads scientific communication and education

Oluwatofunmilayo Arike Diyaolu, Alfred Francis Attah, AS Adeagbo, Y Fukushi, Jones Olanrewaju Moody

The control of angiogenic process is of immense importance to the overall health of mankind to avert out-of-control complications such as tumours and cancers. Tapinanthus bangwensis (TBG) is a semi-parasitic plant with multipurpose uses in Nigerian ethno-medicine among which is its anti-infective properties as well as the anti-tumor and restoration of damaged tissues. Despite the wide and varied uses of TBG, the anti-angiogenic investigation of the plant on different host trees is lacking while the documentation and scientific validation of indigenous knowledge on plants’ use is urgent. The present work focuses on the anti-angiogenic activities of the crude extracts and partitioned fractions of the leaves of Tapinanthus bangwensis (TBG) using the Chick chorio allantoic membrane (CAM) model. The plant was collected from three different host trees namely Albizia lebbeck (AL), Stereospermum kunthianum (SK) and Tabebuia rosea (TR). The methanolic crude extracts and solvent-partitioned fractions of TBG-SK samples were assessed for their anti-angiogenic activities using the chick chorio allantoic membrane (CAM) in ovo and in vitro assay methods respectively. Purification and isolation of major compound(s) in the chloroform fraction of TBG extract obtained from Stereospermum kunthianum host tree (TBG-SK) was carried out using chromatographic and spectroscopic methods (NMR, MS). The crude methanolic extract of TBG-SK was most potent (100% activity) in the CAM in ovo assay while the chloroform fraction produced a significantly (p<0.05) highest average reduction in blood vessels with resultant formation of large avascular zones on CAM following an in vitro CAM assay. The anti-angiogenic chloroform fraction revealed the presence of a UV-active triterpenoid moiety. Findings from this work, has provided some justification for the folkloric use of TBG and thus forms a potential basis for drug discovery for wide-ranging disease states.

563: An instrument to assess HIV-related knowledge and adjustment to HIV+ status, and their association with anti-retroviral adherence
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Posted to bioRxiv 30 Dec 2019

An instrument to assess HIV-related knowledge and adjustment to HIV+ status, and their association with anti-retroviral adherence
129 downloads scientific communication and education

M. Barton Laws, Yoojin Lee, William S. Rogers, Tatiana Taubin, Ira B. Wilson

Background: Findings on the association between health literacy and anti-retroviral (ARV) adherence are inconsistent. Health literacy is usually operationalized with simple tests of basic literacy, but more complex conceptions of health literacy include content knowledge. People living with chronic illness also conceptualize and experience illness in ways other than biomedical or mechanistic models of disease. Objective: There are no instruments that comprehensively assess knowledge of people living with HIV concerning HIV disease and treatment; or psychological adjustment to being HIV+. Little is known about the relationship between factual knowledge, or positive identification as HIV+, and anti-retroviral (ARV) adherence. Methods: Formative work with in-depth semi-structured interviews, and cognitive testing, to develop a structured instrument assessing HIV-related knowledge, and personal meanings of living with HIV. Pilot administration of the instrument to a convenience sample of 101 respondents. Key Results: Respondents varied considerably in their expressed need for in-depth knowledge, the accuracy of their understanding of relevant scientific concepts and facts about ARV treatment, and psychological adjustment and acceptance of HIV+ status. Most knowledge domains were not significantly related to self-reported ARV adherence, but accurate knowledge specifically about ARV treatment was (r=0.25, p=.02), as was an adapted version of the Need for Cognition scale (r=.256, p=.012). Negative feelings about living with HIV (r=.33, p=.0012), and medication taking (r=.276, p=.008) were significantly associated with non-adherence. Conclusion: The instrument may be useful in diagnosing addressable reasons for non-adherence, as a component of psychoeducational interventions, and for evaluation of such interventions.

564: No Relationship Between Perceived Health Anomalies and Perceived Experimental Success in Retired Breeder Male Hartley Albino Guinea Pigs
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Posted to bioRxiv 09 Mar 2020

No Relationship Between Perceived Health Anomalies and Perceived Experimental Success in Retired Breeder Male Hartley Albino Guinea Pigs
127 downloads scientific communication and education

Chandra B. Bain, Julie M. Settlage, Grace A. Blair, Steven Poelzing

Guinea pigs used in our laboratory for cardiac research sometimes exhibit physical abnormalities. These issues may abate or intensify during the time they are housed in our facility. After using a guinea pig for research, experimentalists note the apparent health of an animal based on visible features and/or abnormal electrophysiology of the heart. There was an existing anecdotal observation that the health of the Guinea Pigs, and subsequently the experimental success rate, had a seasonal variation; therefore we sought to determine if there is a time of year in which our guinea pigs are more likely to be perceived as unhealthy, and whether any determined monthly pattern correlates with an experimentalist’s ability to complete an experimental protocol. An electronic log was created to record the perceived health of the animal and the ability to complete the experiment successfully. Irregular symptoms included, but were not limited to, severe weight or hair loss and irregularities with the heart found post thoracotomy or during baseline electrophysiological recordings of whole-heart preparations. Animals that did not exhibit significant weight or hair loss, or other ailments were considered “healthy”. Overall, our results indicate that there are no monthly variations in perceived Hartley Albino guinea pig health or correlations with experimental completion rates, suggesting mild hair or weight loss that is common when shipping animals may not significantly affect the ability to conduct ex vivo whole-heart electrophysiological studies.

565: Healthcare professionals and students’ awareness of Chagas disease: design and validation of ChaLKS (Chagas Level of Knowledge Scale)
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Posted to bioRxiv 20 Aug 2019

Healthcare professionals and students’ awareness of Chagas disease: design and validation of ChaLKS (Chagas Level of Knowledge Scale)
126 downloads scientific communication and education

José M. Ramos-Rincón, José J. Mira-Solves, Violeta Ramos-Sesma, Diego Torrús-Tendero, Jara Llenas-García, Miriam Navarro

Background There are few studies evaluating awareness of Chagas disease among healthcare professionals attending migrants from Latin America or working in Chagas-endemic areas. The objective of this study was to design and validate instruments for assessing knowledge about Chagas disease among healthcare students and residents as well as students and professionals of social and other health science disciplines. Principal findings Two validated scales were obtained: the 10-item Chagas Level of Knowledge Scale for healthcare professionals (ChaLKS-Medical) and the 8-item ChaLKS-Social&Health for potential aid workers from those fields. Both scales were considered adequate in terms of readability, internal consistency, construct validity and discriminant validity. The mean number of correct answers on the ChaLKS-Medical among respondents from non-healthcare versus healthcare sectors was 1.80 (standard deviation [SD] 2.55) versus 7.00 (SD 2.32) (p<0.001). The scores on the ChaLKS-Social&Health also discriminated between the knowledge levels in these two groups (1.76 [SD 2.47] versus 6.78 [SD 1.55], p<0.001). Knowledge among medical/pharmacy students and residents on the ChaLKS-Medical was acceptable (mean 5.8 [SD 2.1] and 7.4 [SD 2.2], respectively; p<0.001). Respondents’ knowledge on Chagas disease was greater in those who had previously received information on the disease; this was true in both respondents from the healthcare sector (mean correct answers, ChaLKS-Medical: 7.2 [SD 2.1] versus 4.3 [2.6], p<0.001) and in potential aid workers (mean correct answers, ChaLKS-Social&Health: 5.1 [SD 2.5] versus 1.1 [SD 1.9], p=0.001). Conclusions The metric properties of both scales are adequate for their use in supporting aid operations in Chagas-endemic countries or in providing health and social care to migrant populations in non-endemic countries. The results of these scales also provide orientation regarding the knowledge gaps to be filled in future health professional training programs.

566: Comparison of analytical methods for rapid & reliable quantification of plant-based carbohydrates for the quintessential bioenergy educator
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Posted to bioRxiv 23 May 2020

Comparison of analytical methods for rapid & reliable quantification of plant-based carbohydrates for the quintessential bioenergy educator
126 downloads scientific communication and education

Shishir P.S. Chundawat

Biochemical conversion of plant-based insoluble carbohydrate polymers, such as starch from corn grains or cellulose-hemicellulose from corn stover, into soluble fermentable sugars (e.g., glucose and xylose) for bioenergy production has seen tremendous research activity and commercial-scale biorefineries deployment over the last three decades, particularly in regions around the world that have a dominant agricultural-based economy. Therefore, educators in schools and universities have developed various hands-on experimental activities to engage the general public and students either in outreach events or lab/classroom-based settings to instruct students on various inter-disciplinary concepts relevant to bioenergy and biochemicals production. One of the limitations of most available protocols is the lack of systematic and comprehensive comparison of educator-friendly analytical tools and protocols for quantitative analysis of water-soluble carbohydrates commonly encountered in a biorefinery backdrop during the biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels/biochemicals. Here, we systematically compare and validate findings from four leading analytical approaches for detection and quantification of lignocellulosic biomass derived soluble carbohydrates. We compare these assay methods based on the overall ease of use, detection accuracy/sensitivity, commercial availability, analytical cost per assay run, and suitability for use by instructors in biorefining specific hands-on activity protocols. Next, we provide a detailed instructional protocol that utilizes one of these validated soluble sugar assays as part of a 90 min hands-on bioenergy focused activity (called Grass-to-Gas) conducted at Rutgers University with pre-university high school students. Grass-to-Gas activity involves students running biochemical assays that helps them understand the various facets of cellulosic biomass hydrolysis by commercial cellulase enzymes and monitoring the total glucose product released using our validated sugar assays to finally estimate the fractional conversion of cellulose-to-glucose. Lastly, we further demonstrate how such carbohydrate-based analytical methods can be used by instructors to help university students explore and understand various chemistry, biochemistry, and chemical engineering concepts relevant to other advanced operations involved in lignocellulose biorefining. These activity protocols would greatly aid educators teaching interdisciplinary science and engineering concepts to students in the backdrop of lignocellulose biorefining. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

567: Handling and Packaging of Medical Bags at the Acute Disaster Site Under High Temperature Conditions
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Posted to bioRxiv 23 Dec 2019

Handling and Packaging of Medical Bags at the Acute Disaster Site Under High Temperature Conditions
126 downloads scientific communication and education

Wataru Ando, Yumika Imamura, Hideyuki Nagashima, Kouji Kondo, Kazunori Nakamura, Katsuya Otori

The handling of medical bags in high temperature disaster sites has not been fully evaluated. In this study, medical bags were assessed in the closed, semi-opened, and opened state, with and without heat insulating material (HIM) and a coolant. The bags were heated for 300 minutes at 35 or 40?, and the internal temperature was measured. closed and semi-opened bags were able to limit temperature increases in the central part of the bag at both 35 and 40? to a greater extent than opened bags. When coolant and HIM were used in closed and semi-opened bags, the internal temperature was significantly lower than that seen in the opened state at 40? (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, in high temperature disaster sites, medical bags should be maintained in a semi-opened or closed state using a HIM and coolant.

568: Measuring hospital spatial wingspan by using a discrete choice model with utility-threshold
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Posted to bioRxiv 12 Nov 2018

Measuring hospital spatial wingspan by using a discrete choice model with utility-threshold
124 downloads scientific communication and education

Saley Issa, Ribatet Mathieu, Molinari Nicolas

Policy makers increasingly rely on hospital competition to incentivize patients to choose high-value care. Travel distance is one of the most important drivers of patients’ decision. The paper presents a method to numerically measure, for a given hospital, the distance beyond which no patient is expected to choose the hospital for treatment by using a new approach in discrete choice models. To illustrate, we compared 3 hospitals attractiveness related to this distance for asthma patients admissions in 2009 in Hérault (France), showing, as expected, CHU Montpellier is the one with the most important spatial wingspan. For estimation, Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) methods are used.

569: Prevalence of scabies and its associated factors among school age children in Arba Minch zuria district, Southern Ethiopia, 2018.
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Posted to bioRxiv 16 Mar 2020

Prevalence of scabies and its associated factors among school age children in Arba Minch zuria district, Southern Ethiopia, 2018.
123 downloads scientific communication and education

Abayneh Tunje, Chuchu Churko, Desta Haftu, Amsalu Alagaw, Eyayou Girma

Background Scabies, a common human skin disease with a prevalence range of 0.2% to 71.4% in the world. It can have considerable impact on general health leading to illness and death not only through direct effect of its infestation and as a result of secondary bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of scabies and its associated factors among school age children in Arba Minch zuria district, Gamo zone, Southern Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was carried out in 845 school age children from February 20 to March 30, 2018. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select study populations. Logistic regression an analysis was used to identify factors associated with scabies. Findings were presented using 95% CI of Crude Odds Ratios (COR) and Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR. To declare statistical significance, p-value less than 0.05 was used. Result A total of 825 children participated in the study with response rate of 97.6%. The overall prevalence of scabies was 16.4% [95% CI: 13.9%, 18.9%]. overcrowding index, family history of itching in the past two weeks, wealth index, knowledge of scabies, climatic zone, frequency of washing body, frequency of washing clothes, finger nails cutting practice, history of skin contact with scabies patient, washing hair more than once weekly, and sharing of clothes were significantly associated scabies disease. Conclusion In conclusion, the prevalence of scabies in Arba Minch lies at 16.4% in the global scabies range 0.2% to 71.4%. The prevalence was highest in highlands followed by midland and then lowland. This represents a significant scabies burden which we recommend warrants health service intervention.

570: Navigating the Valley of Death: Perceptions of Industry and Academia on Production Platforms and Opportunities
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Posted to bioRxiv 09 May 2020

Navigating the Valley of Death: Perceptions of Industry and Academia on Production Platforms and Opportunities
120 downloads scientific communication and education

Linde FC Kampers, Enrique Asin Garcia, Peter J. Schaap, Annemarie Wagemakers, Vitor A. P. Martins dos Santos

Rational lifestyle engineering through synthetic biology has made it possible to improve industrial performance of cell factories for the production of a range of biobased chemicals. However, only an estimated 1 in 5,000 to 10,000 innovations make it through the Valley of Death to market implementation. To gain insights into the key bottlenecks and opportunities to reach market implementation, an exploratory study was performed by conducting 12 in-depth interviews with 8 industrial and 4 academic participants. We found that academics are limited only by technical factors in their research, while industry is restricted in their choices and flexibility by a series of technical, sector dependent and social factors. This leads to a misalignment of interests, often resulting in miscommunication. Although both agree that academia must perform curiosity-driven research to find innovative solutions, there is pressure for short-term industrial applications. All these factors add up to the Valley of Death; the gap between development and market implementation. A third party, in the form of start-up companies, could be the answer to bridging the Valley of Death.

571: Chagas disease awareness and socioeconomic characteristics of Bolivian immigrants living in São Paulo, Brazil.
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Posted to bioRxiv 19 Sep 2019

Chagas disease awareness and socioeconomic characteristics of Bolivian immigrants living in São Paulo, Brazil.
120 downloads scientific communication and education

Rubens Antonio da Silva, Dalva Marli Valério Wanderley, Colin Forsyth, Ruth Moreira Leite, Expedito José de Albuquerque Luna, Nivaldo Carneiro Júnior, Maria Aparecida Shikanai-Yasuda, Grupo de Pesquisa em Doença de Chagas: atenção primária e imigração (Chagas Disease Research Group: Primary Care and Immigration)

In this study, part of a research project on Chagas disease among residents of Bolivia in São Paulo, we describe socioeconomic characteristics, knowledge about the disease and access to health services. A structured questionnaire was applied to a sample of 472 Bolivian adults (> 18 years) living in São Paulo enrolled in the Barra Funda School Health Center. The median age of participants was 28.5 years, 75.0% from the Bolivian department of La Paz, who were living in São Paulo for an average of 5.8 years. Regarding knowledge about the disease and exposure to certain risk factors, 47.7% indicated familiarity with the vector, 23.9% had seen vinchuca in their homes in Bolivia and 6.4% reported having been bitten by a triatomine. The conditions of living in rural areas in Bolivia or in other department than La Paz, have a relative with illness, high school graduation and have seen or been bitten by a vinchuca were significantly associated with the knowledge of the vector. This study provides a view on migration that has important implications for the distribution of Chagas' disease and access to health care by providing subsidies for proposing public health policies.

572: Views and Experiences of Parents and Physicians on the Care Provided to Children with Sickle Cell Disease in Cameroon
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Posted to bioRxiv 03 Mar 2020

Views and Experiences of Parents and Physicians on the Care Provided to Children with Sickle Cell Disease in Cameroon
119 downloads scientific communication and education

Ettamba Agborndip, Benjamin Momo Kadia, Domin Sone Majunda Ekaney, Lawrence Tanyi Mbuagbaw, David C Rees, Helen Bedford

Background: Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) affects two in 100 Cameroonian new-borns, with 50-90% of affected children dying before their fifth birthday. Despite this burden, there is no national SCD programme in Cameroon. This study sought to assess the knowledge of parents and physicians on SCD, their satisfaction with the quality of care and their recommendations to improve the treatment of SCD in Cameroon. Methods: A multi-centre cross-sectional survey was conducted in English and French, using structured questionnaires distributed in electronic format to physicians throughout Cameroon. Paper-based questionnaires were also administered to parents in the West and North West regions of Cameroon. Data were entered into Microsoft Excel and analysed using the SPSS statistical software. Results: Fifty-four parents and 205 physicians were recruited. We found that 72.2% of parents had good knowledge of SCD, 72.2% of parents were satisfied with the quality of care. Attending a sickle cell clinic (AOR 22, 95% CI 17.70-250) was significantly associated with having good knowledge. Just 14.2% of physicians had good knowledge and 23.3% of physicians were satisfied with the available management standards of SCD. Seeing more than five patients per month (AOR 3.17, 95% CI 1.23-8.20) was significantly associated with having good knowledge. Sickle cell clinics, national guidelines and subsidised treatment were the top three measures proposed by physicians and parents to improve the management of SCD. Conclusion: Knowledge of SCD and satisfaction with care were poor among Cameroonian physicians. There is a need for a national programme and a comprehensive system of care for SCD in Cameroon.

573: Trachomatous Trichiasis (TT) management in Tanzania: a mixed method study investigating barriers and facilitators to obtaining treatment
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Posted to bioRxiv 13 Mar 2020

Trachomatous Trichiasis (TT) management in Tanzania: a mixed method study investigating barriers and facilitators to obtaining treatment
116 downloads scientific communication and education

Rebecca M. Flueckiger, George Kabona, Upendo Mwingira, Alistidia Simon, Jeremiah Ngondi

Background: Prolonged ocular Chlamydial infection, known as trachoma, can lead to trachomatous trichiasis (TT). TT is the stage of trachoma where the eyelid turns inwards, resulting in lashes rubbing against the cornea. TT can damage the cornea, leading to vision impairment or blindness. Treatment for TT includes epilation or surgery. Trachoma is targeted for elimination as a public health problem. One criterion of trachoma elimination is less than 0.2% prevalence of TT unknown to the health system in adults >= 15 years. There are several districts in Tanzania that have not attained this target. Methodology: We selected six districts across three regions in Tanzania. Our mixed-methods approach included a retrospective review and analysis of program data and implementation of key informant interviews (KII) and focus group discussions (FGD). The desk review collated data on district-level indicators and generated estimates around number and proportion of cases not identified by case finders and cases lost along the continuum of care. KIIs and FGDs guides were structured to enlist responses around case finding techniques, linkage to services and TT surgery process. Conclusion: We found a substantial proportion (13%) of TT positive people were not being identified by case finders, and of those identified, majority (72%) were lost along the continuum of care. These factors likely contribute to high TT prevalence in districts where surgical interventions are ongoing. Engaging community leaders to share TT information and enlisting people who have received surgery to witness in communities may encourage consent of examination by case finders and increase surgical uptake. After witnessing positive effects of surgery, many interviewees who had previously declined surgery changed their mind. Increasing frequency of surgical camps would improve access to these populations. Additionally, giving more notice about surgical camps and extending duration is important to enable remote populations to obtain services.

574: Potential Utility of Routine Programmatic Data in Monitoring National and State-Level HIV Epidemic in Nigeria: Data Triangulation Analysis
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Posted to bioRxiv 13 Aug 2019

Potential Utility of Routine Programmatic Data in Monitoring National and State-Level HIV Epidemic in Nigeria: Data Triangulation Analysis
115 downloads scientific communication and education

Debem Henry, Aminu Yakubu, Mukhtar Ahmed, Gwamna Jerry, Dalhatu Ibrahim

Nigeria relies on data from periodic resource-intensive surveys such as antenatal HIV seroprevalence sentinel surveys (ANC-HSS) and the population-based National AIDS and Reproductive Health Surveys (NARHS) for its HIV control efforts. Nigeria has not explored the use of readily available routine programmatic data (RPD) to easily inform and monitor epidemic control efforts at the local settings in near real time. This study aimed to determine the utility of RPDs (Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission [PMTCT] and HIV Testing and Counseling [HTC]) as a proxy for monitoring the HIV epidemic in Nigeria. The study question was: to what extent are RPDs correlated with the national survey data (ANC-HSS and NARHS)? Using World Health Organization 12 step triangulation procedures, we compared state-level seropositivity data from PMTCT and HTC programs to HIV prevalence data from NARHS and ANC-HSS reports in relevant pairs from 2010 to 2014 in Nigeria. The study population was pregnant women and the general population. We abstracted relevant data from PEPFAR Nigeria data source and published national survey reports. We compared visual (lines and geographic distribution) patterns and trends, and performed Pearson correlation and univariate linear regression models of the estimates for best matched/contiguous years for which data were available. National prevalence median estimates were as follows: ANC-HSS2014 3.0, PMTCT2014 1.28, HTC2014 2.01; PMTCT2013 1.62, HTC2013 4.2; NARHS2012 2.30; ANC-HSS2010 4.1. Correlation between PMTCT2014 and ANC-HSS2014 was positive and significant (R=0.7, p<0.001). ANC-HSS2014 and HTC2014 were slightly correlated (R=0.4, p<0.05). Significant correlation was observed between ANC-HSS2010 and PMTCT2013 (R=0.8, p<0.001) and between ANC-HSS2010 and HTC2013 (R=0.6, p<0.001). All RPD sources and the ANC-HSS indicated a decreasing trend in national HIV prevalence in Nigeria. PMTCT2014 data showed strong capability of predicting HIV prevalence in ANC-HSS2014 in the regression model (B=2.09, p<0.0001). Use of routine PMTCT data in monitoring HIV prevalence among women of reproductive age could be more valid and reliable in local settings than the use of HTC data. Use of RPD to monitor national and sub-national-level HIV epidemic in between national surveys in Nigeria could maximize program resources, and promote a more responsive and efficient actions toward epidemic control.

575: Bacteriological Monitoring and Evaluation of Cleaning-disinfection of Computer-related Equipment in an Obstetric and Gynecology Hospital
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Posted to bioRxiv 26 Sep 2019

Bacteriological Monitoring and Evaluation of Cleaning-disinfection of Computer-related Equipment in an Obstetric and Gynecology Hospital
114 downloads scientific communication and education

Meiling Li, Tingyan Lu, Hongwei Zhang, Shufang Chen, Xueying Mao, Li Shen, Yan Lu, Shufang Leng

It is already known that computer keyboards and mouses in hospitals are contaminated with different kinds of bacteria. However, the mouse pad has been neglected with regard to both research and regular cleaning and disinfection in hospitals. In our study, we monitored and evaluated the bacteriology degrees of 74 computers' keyboards, mouses and mouse pads from six departments. The results showed that before cleaning-disinfection, the contamination rate of the mouse pad ranked second following the keyboards. Enterococcus Faecium was cultured from the mouse pads. The computer-related equipment in the wards and outpatient rooms were much more contaminated than that in the operating rooms. Acinetobacter spp. was only isolated from the doctor's computers. After cleaning-disinfection, 4 strains of MRSA were isolated from the keyboards and the mouses, one and 3 were cultured at day 3 and day 5 after cleaning-disinfection, respectively. One strain of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa was isolated from the mouses at day 3 after cleaning-disinfection.These demonstrated that the bacterial contamination of the mouse pads must be as emphasized as that of the keyboards and mouses. Furthermore, It is better to clean and disinfect the computer-related equipment(keyboards, mouses, mouse pads) at least once a day.

576: Patterns of discursive interactions between students and teachers in the biology learning process in High school: the use of social media
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Posted to bioRxiv 11 Apr 2020

Patterns of discursive interactions between students and teachers in the biology learning process in High school: the use of social media
113 downloads scientific communication and education

Scarlet Ferreira de Souza, Bárbara Rodrigues Cintra Armellini, Alexandre La Luna, Ana Carolina Ramos Moreno, Martha Cristina Motta Godinho Netto, Rita de Cássia Café Ferreira, Flávio Krzyzanowski Júnior

Increasingly, blending teaching has become a reality in a generation where the digital language is present in virtually every activity. In addition to allowing greater independence and encouraging students to learn at their own pace, blending teaching allows the student to easily access reliable information quickly. Therefore, new studies related to active learning methodology are fundamental. In this study we analyzed 69 interactions between high school students and their teachers in a biology learning activity using a social networking site and the methodology proposed by Mortimer and Scott. The results showed that the prior knowledge of students as well as questions posing challenges and problems to be solved, a very important approach in learning Science Methodology, were barely explored by teachers and mediators (17% and 1%, respectively). Our data demonstrated that the use of digital technology alone does not guarantee interactions that contribute to the learning process in the field of natural sciences. Proposals were also discussed so that these interactions become more diversified and interesting for students, arousing interest in research and promoting the knowledge of scientific methodology. ### Competing Interest Statement The authors have declared no competing interest.

577: Impacts of the 1918 Flu on survivors ' nutritional status:a double quasi-natural experiment
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Posted to bioRxiv 23 Apr 2020

Impacts of the 1918 Flu on survivors ' nutritional status:a double quasi-natural experiment
112 downloads scientific communication and education

Alberto Palloni, Mary McEniry, Yiyue Huangfu, Hiram Beltran-Sanchez

A unique set of events that took place in Puerto Rico during 1918-1919 generated conditions of a “double “quasi-natural experiment. We exploit these conditions to empirically identify effects of exposure to the 1918 flu pandemic, those of the devastation left by an earthquake-tsunami that struck the island in 1918, and those associated with the joint occurrence of these events. We use geographic variation to identify the effects of the quake and timing of birth variation to identify those of the flu. In addition, we use markers of nutritional status gathered in a nationally representative sample of individuals aged 75 and older in 2002. This unique data set enables to make two distinct contributions. First, unlike most fetal-origins research that singles out early nutritional status as a determinant of adult health, we test the hypothesis that the 1918 flu had deleterious effects on the nutritional status on adult survivors who at the time of the flu were in utero or infants. Second, and unlike most research on the effects of the flu, we focus on markers of nutritional status set when the adult survivors were children or adolescents. We find that estimates of effects of the pandemic are sizeable primarily among females and among those who, in addition to the flu, were exposed to the earthquake-tsunami. We argue that these findings constitute empirical evidence supporting the conjecture that effects of the 1918 flu alone and the combined effects of the flu and the earthquake are associated not just with damage experienced during the fetal period but also postnatally.

578: Effect of integrated health system leading-managing-and-governing for results model on institutional delivery: Team-based quasi-experiment
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Posted to bioRxiv 19 Sep 2019

Effect of integrated health system leading-managing-and-governing for results model on institutional delivery: Team-based quasi-experiment
112 downloads scientific communication and education

Yeshambel Agumas Ambelie, Getu Degu Alene, Damen Hailemariam Gebrekiros

AbstractObjective: The objective of this study is to examine, based on theory of change, whether integrated leading-managing-and-governing for results model is plausible cause of improved institutional delivery.Methods: A team-based quasi-experimental study was conducted. One-hundred-thirty-four health facility teams were enrolled in the study. Teams were allocated to intervention and control groups in a 1:1 ratio, non-randomly. End line institutional delivery was the dependent variable while the group (main predictor) and the baseline institutional delivery (covariate) were independent variables. The intervention that was given over six months was integrated leading-managing-and-governing for results model. The institutional deliveries were measured with percentages whilst the group was measured with exposure status (yes or no) to the intervention. Data, from both groups, were collected at baseline and end line. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance. Statistical significance was determined at (p<.05). The main effect of the intervention was determined by 95% CI, presented in the contrast results.Results: The adjusted mean institutional deliveries with 95% CI were 47.4 (46.2, 48.6) and 33.4 (32.2, 34.6) in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Contrast results showed that having an intervention group, p = .000, 95% CI (12.2, 15.8), of integrated leading-managing-and governing for results model significantly increased mean institutional delivery compared to having a control group.Conclusions: This study provides some guidance regarding the plausible causation of integrated leading-managing-and-governing for results model on institutional delivery. It would serve as a baseline in identifying true causation using a randomized design.

579: Study on thermal insulation of diagonal-braced wood frame wall
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Posted to bioRxiv 13 Aug 2019

Study on thermal insulation of diagonal-braced wood frame wall
111 downloads scientific communication and education

Mingbin Liu, Feng Lu, Xiaolin Yang, Yang Ruyuan

This paper has been withdrawn as inappropriate for bioRxiv. It was posted owing to a screening error.

580: HYPERTRIGLICERIDEMIC WAIST, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN SCHOOLCHILDREN
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Posted to bioRxiv 05 Jun 2020

HYPERTRIGLICERIDEMIC WAIST, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN SCHOOLCHILDREN
110 downloads scientific communication and education

Flávio Ricardo Guilherme, Stevan Ricardo dos Santos, Rodrigo Garcia Fiorillo, Wilson Rinaldi

The present study aimed to analyze the prevalence of the Hypertriglyceridemic Waist (HTW) and its rates with levels of physical activity, nutritional status and lipid profile of students from public schools. A sample consisted of 448 schoolchildren between 10 and 18 years old, who are assessed by body mass, height, BMI (waist circumference), triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, non-HDL cholesterol, fasting blood glucose and weekly physical activity time. The survey results showed a high prevalence of the HTW phenotype in schoolchildren (n = 125; 27.9%). The group diagnosed with phenotype has higher body mass, BMI, total cholesterol, LDL-C and non-HDL cholesterol and a lower level of HDL-C about the group without a diagnosis of the phenotype. However, for fasting blood glucose measurements and time of physical activity, the groups are no different. An association analysis using logistic regression showed the HTW phenotype associated with sex, nutritional status, and total cholesterol, where boys presented 2.0 (95% CI 1.3 - 3.2); obese 6.2 (95% CI 2.7 - 17.2) and cholesterol levels above 150 mg / dL 3.5 (95% CI 2.1 - 5.7) times more likely to have the phenotype. In this way, the present research showed a high prevalence of HTW in schoolchildren from public schools, with boys, obese and schoolchildren with total cholesterol levels, the individuals most likely to have the phenotype. However, it is worth emphasizing the importance of monitoring these variables throughout the year in all courses, given the period of strong, biological, behavioral and psychological changes, as they can quickly change the values of the analyzed variables.

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