Rxivist combines preprints from bioRxiv with data from Twitter to help you find the papers being discussed in your field. Currently indexing 65,752 bioRxiv papers from 291,212 authors.
Most downloaded bioRxiv papers, all time
in category molecular biology
2,046 results found. For more information, click each entry to expand.
1,770 downloads molecular biology
Neutrophils are responsible for the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Their nuclei are uniquely structured as multiple lobes that establish a highly constrained nuclear environment. Here we found that neutrophil differentiation was not associated with large-scale changes in the number and sizes of topologically associating domains. However, neutrophil genomes were enriched for long-range genomic interactions that spanned multiple topologically associating domains. Population-based simulation of spherical and toroid genomes revealed declining radii of gyration for neutrophil chromosomes. We found that neutrophil genomes were highly enriched for heterochromatic genomic interactions across vast genomic distances, a process named super-contraction. Super-contraction involved genomic regions located in the heterochromatic compartment in both progenitors and neutrophils or genomic regions that switched from the euchromatic to the heterochromatic compartment during neutrophil differentiation. Super-contraction was accompanied by the repositioning of centromeres, pericentromeres and Long-Interspersed Nuclear Elements (LINEs) to the neutrophil nuclear lamina. We found that Lamin-B Receptor expression was required to attach centromeric and pericentromeric repeats but not LINE-1 elements to the lamina. Differentiating neutrophils also repositioned ribosomal DNA and mini-nucleoli to the lamina: a process that was closely associated with sharply reduced ribosomal RNA expression. We propose that large-scale chromatin reorganization involving super-contraction and recruitment of heterochromatin and nucleoli to the nuclear lamina facilitate the folding of the neutrophil genome into a confined geometry imposed by a multi-lobed nuclear architecture.
1,764 downloads molecular biology
Although tens of thousands of circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been identified in mammalian genomes, only few of them have been characterized with biological functions. Here, we report a new approach, circScan, to identify regulatory interactions between circRNAs and RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) by discovering back-splicing reads from Cross-Linking and Immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (CLIP-seq) data. By using our method, we have systematically scanned ~1500 CLIP-seq datasets, and identified ~12540 and ~1090 novel circRNA-RBP interactions in human and mouse genomes, respectively, which include all known interactions between circRNAs and Argonaute (AGO) proteins. More than twenty novel interactions were further experimentally confirmed by RNA Immunoprecipitation quantitative PCR (RIP-qPCR). Importantly, we uncovered that some natural circRNAs interacted with cap-independent translation factors eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) and N6-Methyladenosine (m6A), indicating they can be translated into proteins. These findings demonstrate that circRNAs are regulated by various RBPs, suggesting they may play important roles in diverse biological processes.
1,760 downloads molecular biology
Massimiliano Clamer, Toma Tebaldi, Fabio Lauria, Paola Bernabò, Rodolfo F. Gómez-Biagi, Elena Perenthaler, Daniele Gubert, Laura Pasquardini, Graziano Guella, Ewout JN Groen, Thomas H Gillingwater, Alessandro Quattrone, Gabriella Viero
Ribosome profiling, or Ribo-Seq, is based around large-scale sequencing of RNA fragments protected from nuclease digestion by ribosomes. Thanks to its unique ability to provide positional information concerning ribosomes flowing along transcripts, this method can be used to shed light on mechanistic aspects of translation. However, current Ribo-Seq approaches lack the ability to distinguish between fragments protected by ribosomes in active translation or by inactive ribosomes. To overcome these significant limitation, we developed RiboLace: a novel method based on an original puromycin-containing molecule capable of isolating active ribosomes by means of an antibody-free and tag-free pull-down approach. RiboLace is fast, works reliably with low amounts of input material, and can be easily and rapidly applied both in vitro and in vivo, thereby generating a global snapshot of active ribosome footprints at single nucleotide resolution.
1,731 downloads molecular biology
Cell type-specific transcriptome analysis is an essential tool in understanding biological processes but can be challenging due to the limits of microdissection or fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Here, we report a novel in vivo sequencing method, which captures the transcriptome of a specific type of cells in a tissue without prior cellular or molecular sorting. SLAM-ITseq provides an accurate snapshot of the transcriptional state in vivo.
1,730 downloads molecular biology
Deep learning methodologies have revolutionized prediction in many fields, and show potential to do the same in molecular biology and genetics. However, applying these methods in their current forms ignores evolutionary dependencies within biological systems and can result in false positives and spurious conclusions. We developed two novel approaches that account for evolutionary relatedness in machine learning models: 1) gene-family guided splitting, and 2) ortholog contrasts. The first approach accounts for evolution by constraining the models training and testing sets to include different gene families. The second, uses evolutionarily informed comparisons between orthologous genes to both control for and leverage evolutionary divergence during the training process. The two approaches were explored and validated within the context of mRNA expression level prediction, and have prediction auROC values ranging from 0.72 to 0.94. Model weight inspections showed biologically interpretable patterns, resulting in the novel hypothesis that the 3' UTR is more important for fine tuning mRNA abundance levels while the 5' UTR is more important for large scale changes.
1,728 downloads molecular biology
The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria is a global threat to human health. The problem is aggravated by unnecessary and incorrect use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. One way to provide correct treatment and to slow down the development of antibiotic resistance is to assay the susceptibility profile of the infecting bacteria before treatment is initiated and let this information guide the choice of antibiotic. However, current methods for Antibiotics Susceptibility Testing (AST) are too slow for point of care application. Here we present a fast AST, fASTest, that rapidly captures individual bacterial cells in nanofluidics channels and monitors their response to different antibiotics based on direct imaging. By averaging the growth rate over many cells, we determined the susceptibility to several antibiotics in less than 25 min even at cell densities as low as 10000 CFU/mL. The short time scale, high sensitivity and high specificity make the method practically useful for guiding antibiotic treatment in, for example, urinary tract infections.
1,727 downloads molecular biology
RNA structure is intimately connected to each step of gene expression. Recent advances have enabled transcriptome-wide maps of RNA secondary structure, termed RNA structuromes. However, previous whole-cell analyses lacked the resolution to unravel the dynamic regulation of RNA structure across subcellular states. Here we reveal the RNA structuromes in three compartments-chromatin, nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. The cytotopic structuromes substantially expand RNA structural information, and enable detailed investigation of the central role of RNA structure in linking transcription, translation, and RNA decay. Through comparative structure analysis, we develop a resource to visualize the interplay of RNA-protein interactions, RNA chemical modifications, and RNA structure, and predict both direct and indirect reader proteins of RNA modifications. We validate the novel role of the RNA binding protein LIN28A as an N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification 'anti-reader'. Our results highlight the dynamic nature of RNA structures and its functional significance in gene regulation.
1,710 downloads molecular biology
The CRISPR-Cas9 system has successfully been adapted to edit the genome of various organisms. However, our ability to predict editing accuracy, efficacy and outcome at specific sites is limited by an incomplete understanding of how the bacterial system interacts with eukaryotic genomes and DNA repair machineries. Here, we performed the largest comparison of indel profiles to date, examining over one thousand sites in the genome of human cells, and uncovered general principles guiding CRISPR-mediated DNA editing. We find that precision of DNA editing varies considerably among sites, with some targets showing one highly preferred indel and others displaying a wide range of infrequent indels. Editing precision correlates with editing efficiency, homology-associated end joining for both insertions and deletions, and a preference for single-nucleotide insertions. Precise targets and the identity of their preferred indel can be predicted based on simple rules that mainly depend on the fourth nucleotide upstream of the PAM sequence. Regardless of precision, site-specific indel profiles are highly robust and depend on both DNA sequence and chromatin features. Our findings have important implications for clinical applications of CRISPR technology and reveal general patterns of broken end-joining that can inform us on DNA repair mechanisms in human cells.
1,692 downloads molecular biology
Mathias Uhlen, Hanna Tegel, Åsa Sivertsson, Chih-Chung Kuo, Jahir M Gutierrez, Nathan E Lewis, Björn Forsström, Melanie Dannemeyer, Linn Fagerberg, Magdalena Malm, Helian Vunk, Fredrik Edfors, Andreas Hober, Evelina Sjöstedt, David Kotol, Jan Mulder, Adil Mardinoglu, Jochen M Schwenk, Peter Nilsson, Martin Zwahlen, Jenny Ottosson Takanen, Kalle von Feilitzen, Charlotte Stadler, Cecilia Lindskog, Fredrik Ponten, Jens Nielsen, Bernhard O Palsson, Anna-Luisa Volk, Magnus Lundqvist, Anna Berling, Anne-Sophie Svensson, Sara Kanje, Henric Enstedt, Delaram Afshari, Siri Ekblad, Julia Scheffel, Borbala Katona, Jimmy Vuu, Emil Lindström, LanLan Xu, Roxana Mihai, Lucas Bremer, Malin Westin, Muna Muse, Lorenz M Mayr, Sinead Knight, Sven Göpel, Rick Davies, Paul Varley, Diane Hatton, Ray Fields, Bjørn G Voldborg, Johan Rockberg, Lovisa Holmberg Schiavone, Sophia Hober
The proteins secreted by human tissues (the secretome) are important for the basic understanding of human biology, but also for identification of potential targets for future diagnosis and therapy. Here, we present an annotated list of all predicted secreted proteins (n=2,623) with information about cellular origin and spatial distribution in the human body. A high-throughput mammalian cell factory was established to create a resource of recombinant full-length proteins. This resource was used for phenotypic assays involving β-cell dedifferentiation and for development of targeted proteomics assays. A comparison between host cells, including omics analysis, shows that many of the proteins that failed to be generated in CHO cells could be rescued in human HEK 293 cells. In conclusion, the human secretome has been mapped and characterized and a resource has been generated to facilitate further exploration of the human secretome.
1,689 downloads molecular biology
One of the characteristics of RNA interference (RNAi) is systemic spread of the silencing signal among cells and tissues throughout the organism. Systemic RNAi, initiated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) ingestion, has been reported in diverse invertebrates, including honey bees, demonstrating environmental RNA uptake that undermines homologous gene expression. However, the question why any organism would take up RNA from the environment has remained largely unanswered. Here, we report on horizontal RNA flow among honey bees mediated by secretion and ingestion of worker and royal jelly diets. We show that ingested dsRNA spreads through the bee's hemolymph associated with a protein complex. The systemic dsRNA is secreted with the jelly and delivered to larvae via ingestion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that transmission of jelly-secreted dsRNA to larvae is biologically active and triggers gene knockdown that lasts into adulthood. Finally, RNA extracted from worker and royal jellies harbor differential naturally occurring RNA populations. Some of these RNAs corresponded to honey bee protein coding genes, transposable elements, non-coding RNA as well as bacteria, fungi and viruses. These results reveal an inherent property of honey bees to share RNA among individuals and generations. Thus, our findings suggest a transmissible RNA pathway, playing a role in social immunity and epigenetic signaling between honey bees and potentially among other closely interacting organisms.
1,684 downloads molecular biology
RNA folding plays a crucial role in RNA function. However, our knowledge of the global structure of the transcriptome is limited to steady-state conditions, hindering our understanding of how RNA structure dynamics influences gene function. Here, we have characterized mRNA structure dynamics during zebrafish development. We observe that on a global level, translation guides structure rather than structure guiding translation. We detect a decrease in structure in translated regions, and we identify the ribosome as a major remodeler of RNA structure in vivo. In contrast, we find that 3'-UTRs form highly folded structures in vivo, which can affect gene expression by modulating miRNA activity. Furthermore, we find that dynamic 3'-UTR structures encode RNA decay elements, including regulatory elements in nanog and cyclin A1, key maternal factors orchestrating the maternal-to-zygotic transition. These results reveal a central role of RNA structure dynamics in gene regulatory programs.
1,678 downloads molecular biology
Post-transcriptional cleavage and polyadenylation of messenger and long noncoding RNAs is coordinated by a supercomplex of ~20 individual proteins within the eukaryotic nucleus. Polyadenylation plays an essential role in controlling RNA transcript stability, nuclear export, and translation efficiency. More than half of all human RNA transcripts contain multiple polyadenylation signal sequences that can undergo alternative cleavage and polyadenylation during development and cellular differentiation. Alternative cleavage and polyadenylation is an important mechanism for the control of gene expression and defects in 3-prime end processing can give rise to myriad human diseases. Here we show that fusion of catalytically dead Cas13 to a single mammalian polyadenylation factor, Nudix hydrolase 21 (NUDT21), allows for site-specific CRISPR-Cas13-guided cleavage and polyadenylation of RNA in mammalian cells. This approach, which we named Postscriptr, can be utilized for the non-genomic manipulation of gene expression and may have potential future therapeutic applications for treating human RNA processing diseases.
1,675 downloads molecular biology
Telomere length is regulated around an equilibrium set point. Telomeres shorten during replication and are lengthened by telomerase. Disruption of the length equilibrium leads to disease, thus it is important to understand the mechanisms that regulate length at the molecular level. The prevailing protein counting model for regulating telomerase access to elongate the telomere does not explain accumulating evidence of a role of DNA replication in telomere length regulation. Here I present an alternative model: the replication fork model that can explain how passage of a replication fork and regulation of origin firing affect telomere length.
1,671 downloads molecular biology
Rapid molecular diagnostic technology is very useful in many areas, including public health, environmental testing and criminal investigation. We recently showed that Cas12a had trans-cleavage activity upon collateral single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), with which the HOLMES platform (one-HOur Low-cost Multipurpose highly Efficient System) was developed. Here, we combine the thermophilic Cas12b, which also has the ssDNA trans-cleavage activity, with Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP), and create HOLMESv2. In HOLMESv2, LAMP amplification and Cas12b trans-cleavage can be integrated into a one-step system with a constant temperature, which therefore brings much convenience in nucleic acid detection. Moreover, we also simplify the RNA detection procedures in HOLMESv2, using an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase for amplification and therefore omitting an extra reverse transcription step.
1,664 downloads molecular biology
Messenger RNAs (mRNAs) encode information in both their primary sequence and their higher order structure. The independent contributions of factors like codon usage and secondary structure to regulating protein expression are difficult to establish as they are often highly correlated in endogenous sequences. Here, we used two approaches, global inclusion of modified nucleotides and rational sequence design of exogenously delivered constructs to understand the role of mRNA secondary structure independent from codon usage. Unexpectedly, highly-expressed mRNAs contained a highly-structured coding sequence (CDS). Modified nucleotides that stabilize mRNA secondary structure enabled high expression across a wide-variety of primary sequences. Using a set of eGFP mRNAs that independently altered codon usage and CDS structure, we find that the structure of the CDS regulates protein expression through changes in functional mRNA half-life (i.e. mRNA being actively translated). This work highlights an underappreciated role of mRNA secondary structure in the regulation of mRNA stability.
1,645 downloads molecular biology
mRNAs form ribonucleoprotein complexes (mRNPs) by association with proteins that are crucial for mRNA metabolism. While the mRNP proteome has been well characterized, little is known about mRNP organization. Using a single molecule approach, we show that mRNA conformation changes depending on its cellular localization and translational state. Compared to nuclear mRNPs and lncRNPs, association with ribosomes decompacts individual mRNAs, while their sequestration into stress-granules leads to increased compaction. Moreover, translating mRNAs rarely show co-localizing 5' and 3' ends, indicating that mRNAs are either not translated in a closed-loop configuration, or that mRNA circularization is transient, suggesting that a stable closed-loop conformation is not a universal state for all translating mRNAs.
1,641 downloads molecular biology
During meiotic prophase, chromosomes organise into a series of chromatin loops emanating from a proteinaceous axis, but the mechanisms of assembly remain unclear. Here we elucidate how this elaborate three-dimensional chromosome organisation is underpinned by genomic sequence in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Entering meiosis, strong cohesin-dependent grid-like Hi-C interaction patterns emerge, reminiscent of mammalian interphase organisation, but with distinct regulation. Meiotic patterns agree with simulations of loop extrusion limited by barriers, yet are patterned by convergent transcription rather than binding of the mammalian interphase factor, CTCF, which is absent in S. cerevisiae - thereby both challenging and extending current paradigms of local chromosome organisation. While grid-like interactions emerge independently of meiotic chromosome synapsis, synapsis itself generates additional compaction that matures differentially according to telomere proximity and chromosome size. Collectively, our results elucidate fundamental principles of chromosome assembly and demonstrate the essential role of cohesin within this evolutionarily conserved process.
1,621 downloads molecular biology
Eric M Jones, Nathan B Lubock, A.J. Venkatakrishnan, Jeffrey Wang, Alex M Tseng, Joseph Paggi, Naomi R Latorraca, Daniel Cancilla, Megan Satyadi, Jessica E Davis, Madan Babu, Ron O. Dror, Sriram Kosuri
In humans, the 813 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are responsible for transducing diverse chemical stimuli to alter cell state, and are the largest class of drug targets. Their myriad structural conformations and various modes of signaling make it challenging to understand their structure and function. Here we developed a platform to characterize large libraries of GPCR variants in human cell lines with a barcoded transcriptional reporter of G-protein signal transduction. We tested 7,800 of 7,828 possible single amino acid substitutions to the beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) at four concentrations of the agonist isoproterenol. We identified residues specifically important for β2AR signaling, mutations in the human population that are potentially loss of function, and residues that modulate basal activity. Using unsupervised learning, we resolve residues critical for signaling, including all major structural motifs and molecular interfaces. We also find a previously uncharacterized structural latch spanning the first two extracellular loops that is highly conserved across Class A GPCRs and is conformationally rigid in both the inactive and active states of the receptor. More broadly, by linking deep mutational scanning with engineered transcriptional reporters, we establish a generalizable method for exploring pharmacogenomics, structure and function across broad classes of drug receptors.
1,604 downloads molecular biology
Jiao Sima, Abhijit Chakraborty, Vishnu Dileep, Marco Michalski, Juan Carlos Rivera-Mulia, Claudia Trevilla-Garcia, Kyle N Klein, Daniel Bartlett, Brian K Washburn, Michelle T Paulsen, Daniel Vera, Elphège P Nora, Katerina Kraft, Stefan Mundlos, Benoit G. Bruneau, Mats Ljungman, Peter Fraser, Ferhat Ay, David M Gilbert
The temporal order of DNA replication (replication timing, RT) is highly coupled with genome architecture, but cis-elements regulating spatio-temporal control of replication have remained elusive. We performed an extensive series of CRISPR mediated deletions and inversions and high-resolution capture Hi-C of a pluripotency associated domain (DppA2/4) in mouse embryonic stem cells. Whereas CTCF mediated loops and chromatin domain boundaries were dispensable, deletion of three intra-domain prominent CTCF-independent 3D contact sites caused a domain-wide early to late switch in RT, shift in sub-nuclear chromatin compartment and loss of transcriptional activity, These early replication control elements (ERCEs) display prominent chromatin features resembling enhancers/promoters and individual and pair-wise deletions of the ERCEs confirmed their partial redundancy and interdependency in controlling domain-wide RT and transcription. Our results demonstrate that discrete cis-regulatory elements mediate domain-wide RT, chromatin compartmentalization, and transcription, representing a major advance in dissecting the relationship between genome structure and function.
1,590 downloads molecular biology
Cellular DNA/RNA tags (barcodes) allow for multiplexed cell lineage tracing and neuronal projection mapping with cellular resolution. Conventional approaches to reading out cellular barcodes trade off spatial resolution with throughput. Bulk sequencing achieves high throughput but sacrifices spatial resolution, whereas manual cell picking has low throughput. In situ sequencing could potentially achieve both high spatial resolution and high throughput, but current in situ sequencing techniques are inefficient at reading out cellular barcodes. Here we describe BaristaSeq, an optimization of a targeted, padlock probe-based technique for in situ barcode sequencing compatible with Illumina sequencing chemistry. BaristaSeq results in a five-fold increase in amplification efficiency, with a sequencing accuracy of at least 97%. BaristaSeq could be used for barcode-assisted lineage tracing, and to map long-range neuronal projections.
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