Rxivist logo

Rxivist.org combines preprints from bioRxiv and medRxiv with data from Twitter to help you find the papers being discussed in your field.
Currently indexing 131,285 papers from 561,734 authors.

Most downloaded biology preprints, all time

Results 1 through 20 out of 4438

in category infectious diseases


1: Aerosol and surface stability of HCoV-19 (SARS-CoV-2) compared to SARS-CoV-1

Neeltje van Doremalen, Trenton Bushmaker et al.

877,730 downloads (posted 10 Mar 2020)

To the EditorA novel human coronavirus, now named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, referred to as HCoV-19 here) that emerged in Wuhan, China in late 2019 is now causing a pandemic1. Here, we analyze the aerosol and surface stability of HCoV-19 and compare it with SARS-CoV-1, the most closely related human coronavirus.2 We evaluated the stability of HCoV-19 and SARS-CoV-1 in aerosols and on different surfaces and estimated their decay rates using a Bayesian regression model (see Supplementary Appendix). All experimental measurements are reported as mean across 3 replicates.


2: Estimating the effective reproduction number of the 2019-nCoV in China

Zhidong Cao, Qingpeng Zhang et al.

526,325 downloads (posted 29 Jan 2020)

We estimate the effective reproduction number for 2019-nCoV based on the daily reported cases from China CDC. The results indicate that 2019-nCoV has a higher effective reproduction number than SARS with a comparable fatality rate. Article Summary LineThis modeling study indicates that 2019-nCoV has a higher effective reproduction number than SARS with a comparable fatality rate.


3: Outcomes of hydroxychloroquine usage in United States veterans hospitalized with Covid-19

Joseph Magagnoli, Siddharth Narendran et al.

445,625 downloads (posted 21 Apr 2020)

BACKGROUND: Despite limited and conflicting data on the use of hydroxychloroquine in patients with Covid-19, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has authorized the emergency use of this drug when clinical trials are unavailable or infeasible. Hydroxychloroquine, alone or in combination with azithromycin, is being widely used in Covid-19 therapy based on anecdotal and limited observational evidence. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of data from patients hospitalized with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in ...


4: Novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV: early estimation of epidemiological parameters and epidemic predictions

Jonathan M Read, Jessica R.E. Bridgen et al.

384,684 downloads (posted 24 Jan 2020)

Since first identified, the epidemic scale of the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan, China, has increased rapidly, with cases arising across China and other countries and regions. using a transmission model, we estimate a basic reproductive number of 3.11 (95%CI, 2.39-4.13); 58-76% of transmissions must be prevented to stop increasing; Wuhan case ascertainment of 5.0% (3.6-7.4); 21022 (11090-33490) total infections in Wuhan 1 to 22 January. Changes to previous versionO_LIcase data updated to inclu...


5: The infection fatality rate of COVID-19 inferred from seroprevalence data

John Ioannidis

230,165 downloads (posted 19 May 2020)

Objective To estimate the infection fatality rate of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from data of seroprevalence studies. Methods Population studies with sample size of at least 500 and published as peer-reviewed papers or preprints as of July 11, 2020 were retrieved from PubMed, preprint servers, and communications with experts. Studies on blood donors were included, but studies on healthcare workers were excluded. The studies were assessed for design features and seroprevalence estimates. Infection fatality rate w...


6: Transmission Potential of SARS-CoV-2 in Viral Shedding Observed at the University of Nebraska Medical Center

Joshua L Santarpia, Danielle N Rivera et al.

228,141 downloads (posted 26 Mar 2020)

Lack of evidence on SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics has led to shifting isolation guidelines between airborne and droplet isolation precautions. During the initial isolation of 13 individuals confirmed positive with COVID-19 infection, air and surface samples were collected in eleven isolation rooms to examine viral shedding from isolated individuals. While all individuals were confirmed positive for SARS-CoV-2, symptoms and viral shedding to the environment varied considerably. Many commonly used items, toilet facilit...


7: Clinical presentation and virological assessment of hospitalized cases of coronavirus disease 2019 in a travel-associated transmission cluster

Roman W├Âlfel, Victor M Corman et al.

206,390 downloads (posted 08 Mar 2020)

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory tract infection that emerged in late 20191,2. Initial outbreaks in China involved 13.8% cases with severe-, and 6.1% with critical courses3. This severe presentation corresponds to the usage of a virus receptor that is expressed predominantly in the lung2,4. By causing an early onset of severe symptoms, this same receptor tropism is thought to have determined pathogenicity but also aided the control of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 20035. However,...


8: Indoor transmission of SARS-CoV-2

Hua Qian, Te Miao et al.

184,827 downloads (posted 07 Apr 2020)

BackgroundBy early April 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic had infected nearly one million people and had spread to nearly all countries worldwide. It is essential to understand where and how SARS-CoV-2 is transmitted. MethodsCase reports were extracted from the local Municipal Health Commissions of 320 prefectural cities (municipalities) in China, not including Hubei province, between 4 January and 11 February 2020. We identified all outbreaks involving three or more cases and reviewed the major characteristics of the enclo...


9: Repurposed antiviral drugs for COVID-19; interim WHO SOLIDARITY trial results

WHO Solidarity trial consortium, Hongchao Pan et al.

136,389 downloads (posted 15 Oct 2020)

BACKGROUNDWHO expert groups recommended mortality trials in hospitalized COVID-19 of four re-purposed antiviral drugs. METHODSStudy drugs were Remdesivir, Hydroxychloroquine, Lopinavir (fixed-dose combination with Ritonavir) and Interferon-{beta}1a (mainly subcutaneous; initially with Lopinavir, later not). COVID-19 inpatients were randomized equally between whichever study drugs were locally available and open control (up to 5 options: 4 active and local standard-of-care). The intent-to-treat primary analyses are of i...


10: Stability of SARS-CoV-2 in different environmental conditions

Alex W.H. Chin, Julie T.S. Chu et al.

132,914 downloads (posted 18 Mar 2020)

Stability of SARS-CoV-2 in different environmental conditions.



Andrew T. Levin, William P. Hanage et al.

131,300 downloads (posted 24 Jul 2020)

Structured AbstractO_ST_ABSObjectiveC_ST_ABSDetermine age-specific infection fatality rates for COVID-19 to inform public health policies and communications that help protect vulnerable age groups. MethodsStudies of COVID-19 prevalence were collected by conducting an online search of published articles, preprints, and government reports that were publicly disseminated prior to 18 September 2020. The systematic review encompassed 113 studies, of which 27 studies (covering 34 geographical locations) satisfied the inclusi...


12: Hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin: a potential interest in reducing in-hospital morbidity due to COVID-19 pneumonia (HI-ZY-COVID)?

Benjamin Davido, Thibaud Lansaman et al.

127,385 downloads (posted 11 May 2020)

The authors have withdrawn this manuscript and do not wish it to be cited. Because of controversy about hydroxychloroquine and the retrospective nature of their study, they intend to revise the manuscript after peer review.


13: No evidence of clinical efficacy of hydroxychloroquine in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 infection with oxygen requirement: results of a study using routinely collected data to emulate a target trial

Matthieu Mahevas, Tran Viet-Thi et al.

125,810 downloads (posted 14 Apr 2020)

Background Treatments are urgently needed to prevent respiratory failure and deaths from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has received worldwide attention because of positive results from small studies. Methods We used data collected from routine care of all adults in 4 French hospitals with documented SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and requiring oxygen [≥] 2 L/min to emulate a target trial aimed at assessing the effectiveness of HCQ at 600 mg/day. The composite primary endpoint was transfer to int...


14: Neutralizing antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in a COVID-19 recovered patient cohort and their implications

Fan Wu, Aojie Wang et al.

124,952 downloads (posted 06 Apr 2020)

BackgroundThe COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus threatens global public health. Currently, neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) versus this virus are expected to correlate with recovery and protection of this disease. However, the characteristics of these antibodies have not been well studied in association with the clinical manifestations in patients. MethodsPlasma collected from 175 COVID-19 recovered patients with mild symptoms were screened using a safe and sensitive pseudotyped-lentiviral-vector-based n...


15: Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin plus zinc vs hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin alone: outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients

Philip Carlucci, Tania Ahuja et al.

112,664 downloads (posted 08 May 2020)

Background: COVID-19 has rapidly emerged as a pandemic infection that has caused significant mortality and economic losses. Potential therapies and means of prophylaxis against COVID-19 are urgently needed to combat this novel infection. As a result of in vitro evidence suggesting zinc sulfate may be efficacious against COVID-19, our hospitals began using zinc sulfate as add-on therapy to hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin. We performed a retrospective observational study to compare hospital outcomes among patients who...


16: Forecasting COVID-19 impact on hospital bed-days, ICU-days, ventilator-days and deaths by US state in the next 4 months

IHME COVID-19 health service utilization forecasting team, Christopher J.L. Murray

104,457 downloads (posted 30 Mar 2020)

ImportanceThis study presents the first set of estimates of predicted health service utilization and deaths due to COVID-19 by day for the next 4 months for each state in the US. ObjectiveTo determine the extent and timing of deaths and excess demand for hospital services due to COVID-19 in the US. Design, Setting, and ParticipantsThis study used data on confirmed COVID-19 deaths by day from WHO websites and local and national governments; data on hospital capacity and utilization for US states; and observed COVID-19 ...


17: Effect of Dexamethasone in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19: Preliminary Report

Peter Horby, Wei Shen Lim et al.

99,674 downloads (posted 22 Jun 2020)

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with diffuse lung damage. Corticosteroids may modulate immune-mediated lung injury and reducing progression to respiratory failure and death. Methods: The Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 therapy (RECOVERY) trial is a randomized, controlled, open-label, adaptive, platform trial comparing a range of possible treatments with usual care in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. We report the preliminary results for the comparison of dexamethasone 6 mg given once ...


18: Longitudinal evaluation and decline of antibody responses in SARS-CoV-2 infection

Jeffrey Seow, Carl Graham et al.

87,603 downloads (posted 11 Jul 2020)

Antibody (Ab) responses to SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in most infected individuals 10-15 days following the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. However, due to the recent emergence of this virus in the human population it is not yet known how long these Ab responses will be maintained or whether they will provide protection from re-infection. Using sequential serum samples collected up to 94 days post onset of symptoms (POS) from 65 RT-qPCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals, we show seroconversion in >95% of cases and n...


19: Evaluation of antibody testing for SARS-Cov-2 using ELISA and lateral flow immunoassays

Emily R Adams, Mark Ainsworth et al.

86,187 downloads (posted 20 Apr 2020)

ABSTRACT Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic caused >1 million infections during January-March 2020. There is an urgent need for reliable antibody detection approaches to support diagnosis, vaccine development, safe release of individuals from quarantine, and population lock-down exit strategies. We set out to evaluate the performance of ELISA and lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) devices. Design: We tested plasma for COVID (SARS-CoV-2) IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA and using nine different LFIA devices. Setting: We perfo...


20: A systematic review of antibody mediated immunity to coronaviruses: antibody kinetics, correlates of protection, and association of antibody responses with severity of disease

Angkana T. Huang, Bernardo Garcia-Carreras et al.

82,823 downloads (posted 17 Apr 2020)

The duration and nature of immunity generated in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is unknown. Many public health responses and modeled scenarios for COVID-19 outbreaks caused by SARS-CoV-2 assume that infection results in an immune response that protects individuals from future infections or illness for some amount of time. The timescale of protection is a critical determinant of the future impact of the pathogen. The presence or absence of protective immunity due to infection or vaccination (when available) will affect...