Rxivist combines preprints from bioRxiv with data from Twitter to help you find the papers being discussed in your field. Currently indexing 77,075 bioRxiv papers from 334,230 authors.
Most downloaded bioRxiv papers, all time
in category immunology
2,014 results found. For more information, click each entry to expand.
30,685 downloads immunology
The CRISPR-Cas9 system has proven to be a powerful tool for genome editing allowing for the precise modification of specific DNA sequences within a cell. Many efforts are currently underway to use the CRISPR-Cas9 system for the therapeutic correction of human genetic diseases. The most widely used homologs of the Cas9 protein are derived from the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes). Based on the fact that these two bacterial species cause infections in the human population at high frequencies, we looked for the presence of pre-existing adaptive immune responses to their respective Cas9 homologs, SaCas9 (S. aureus homolog of Cas9) and SpCas9 (S. pyogenes homolog of Cas9). To determine the presence of anti-Cas9 antibodies, we probed for the two homologs using human serum and were able to detect antibodies against both, with 79% of donors staining against SaCas9 and 65% of donors staining against SpCas9. Upon investigating the presence of antigen-specific T-cells against the two homologs in human peripheral blood, we found anti-SaCas9 T-cells in 46% of donors. Upon isolating, expanding, and conducting antigen re-stimulation experiments on several of these donors anti-SaCas9 T-cells, we observed a SaCas9-specific response confirming that these T-cells were antigen-specific. We were unable to detect antigen-specific T-cells against SpCas9, although the sensitivity of the assay precludes us from concluding that such T-cells do not exist. Together, this data demonstrates that there are pre-existing humoral and cell-mediated adaptive immune responses to Cas9 in humans, a factor which must be taken into account as the CRISPR-Cas9 system moves forward into clinical trials.
18,392 downloads immunology
Bin Ju, Qi Zhang, Xiangyang Ge, Ruoke Wang, Jiazhen Yu, Sisi Shan, Bing Zhou, Shuo Song, Xian Tang, Jinfang Yu, Jiwan Ge, Jun Lan, Jing Yuan, Haiyan Wang, Juanjuan Zhao, Shuye Zhang, Youchun Wang, Xuanling Shi, Lei Liu, Xinquan Wang, Zheng Zhang, Linqi Zhang
The pandemic caused by emerging coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 presents a serious global public health emergency in urgent need of prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. SARS CoV-2 cellular entry depends on binding between the viral Spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) target cell receptor. Here, we report on the isolation and characterization of 206 RBD-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) derived from single B cells of eight SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. These mAbs come from diverse families of antibody heavy and light chains without apparent enrichment for particular families in the repertoire. In samples from one patient selected for further analyses, we found coexistence of germline and germline divergent clones. Both clone types demonstrated impressive binding and neutralizing activity against pseudovirus and live SARS-CoV-2. However, the antibody neutralizing potency is determined by competition with ACE2 receptor for RBD binding. Surprisingly, none of the SARS CoV 2 antibodies nor the infected plasma cross-reacted with RBDs from either SARS CoV or MERS CoV although substantial plasma cross reactivity to the trimeric Spike proteins from SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV was found. These results suggest that antibody response to RBDs is viral species-specific while that cross-recognition target regions outside the RBD. The specificity and neutralizing characteristics of this plasma cross-reactivity requires further investigation. Nevertheless, the diverse and potent neutralizing antibodies identified here are promising candidates for prophylactic and therapeutic SARS-CoV-2 interventions.
10,121 downloads immunology
Elham Azizi, Ambrose J Carr, George Plitas, Andrew E. Cornish, Catherine Konopacki, Sandhya Prabhakaran, Juozas Nainys, Kenmin Wu, Vaidotas Kiseliovas, Manu Setty, Kristy Choi, Rachel M. Fromme, Phuong Dao, Peter T. McKenney, Ruby C. Wasti, Krishna Kadaveru, Linas Mazutis, Alexander Y. Rudensky, Dana Pe’er
Knowledge of immune cell phenotypes in the tumor microenvironment is essential for understanding mechanisms of cancer progression and immunotherapy response. We created an immune map of breast cancer using single-cell RNA-seq data from 45,000 immune cells from eight breast carcinomas, as well as matched normal breast tissue, blood, and lymph node. We developed a preprocessing pipeline, SEQC, and a Bayesian clustering and normalization method, Biscuit, to address computational challenges inherent to single-cell data. Despite significant similarity between normal and tumor tissue-resident immune cells, we observed continuous tumor-specific phenotypic expansions driven by environmental cues. Analysis of paired single-cell RNA and T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing data from 27,000 additional T cells revealed the combinatorial impact of TCR utilization on phenotypic diversity. Our results support a model of continuous activation in T cells and do not comport with the macrophage polarization model in cancer, with important implications for characterizing tumor-infiltrating immune cells.
9,189 downloads immunology
Background For decades, human infections with Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, were sporadic, associated with mild disease, and went underreported since symptoms were similar to other acute febrile diseases endemic in the same regions. Recent reports of severe disease associated with ZIKV, including Guillain-Barre syndrome and severe fetal abnormalities, have greatly heightened awareness. Given its recent history of rapid spread in immune naive populations, it is anticipated that ZIKV will continue to spread in the Americas and globally in regions where competent Aedes mosquito vectors are found. Globally, dengue virus (DENV) is the most common mosquito-transmitted human flavivirus and is both well-established and the source of outbreaks in areas of recent ZIKV introduction. DENV and ZIKV are closely related, resulting in substantial antigenic overlap. Through a mechanism known as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), anti-DENV antibodies can enhance the infectivity of DENV for certain classes of immune cells, causing increased viral production that correlates with severe disease outcomes. Similarly, ZIKV has been shown to undergo ADE in response to antibodies generated by other flaviviruses. However, response to DENV antibodies has not yet been investigated. Methodology / Principal Findings We tested the neutralizing and enhancing potential of well-characterized broadly neutralizing human anti-DENV monoclonal antibodies (HMAbs) and human DENV immune sera against ZIKV using neutralization and ADE assays. We show that anti-DENV HMAbs, cross-react, do not neutralize, and greatly enhance ZIKV infection in vitro. DENV immune sera had varying degrees of neutralization against ZIKV and similarly enhanced ZIKV infection. Conclusions / Significance Our results suggest that pre-existing DENV immunity will enhance ZIKV infection in vivo and may increase disease severity. A clear understanding of the interplay between ZIKV and DENV will be critical in informing public health responses in regions where these viruses co-circulate and will be particularly valuable for ZIKV and DENV vaccine design and implementation strategies.
6,339 downloads immunology
Adrian W Briggs, Stephen J Goldfless, Sonia Timberlake, Brian J Belmont, Christopher R Clouser, David Koppstein, Devin Sok, Jason Vander A Heiden, Manu V Tamminen, Steven H. Kleinstein, Dennis R. Burton, George M. Church, Francois Vigneault
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are critical to anti-cancer immune responses, but their diverse phenotypes and functions remain poorly understood and challenging to study. We therefore developed a single-cell barcoding technology for deep characterization of TILs without the need for cell-sorting or culture. Our emulsion-based method captures full-length, natively paired B-cell and T-cell receptor (BCR and TCR) sequences from lymphocytes among millions of input cells. We validated the method with 3 million B-cells from healthy human blood and 350,000 B-cells from an HIV elite controller, before processing 400,000 cells from an unsorted dissociated ovarian adenocarcinoma and recovering paired BCRs and TCRs from over 11,000 TILs. We then extended the barcoding method to detect DNA-labeled antibodies, allowing ultra-high throughput, simultaneous protein detection and RNA sequencing from single cells.
6,127 downloads immunology
Human T cells are central effectors of immunity and cancer immunotherapy. CRISPR-based functional studies in T cells could prioritize novel targets for drug development and improve the design of genetically reprogrammed cell-based therapies. However, large-scale CRISPR screens have been challenging in primary human cells. We developed a new method, sgRNA lentiviral infection with Cas9 protein electroporation (SLICE), to identify regulators of stimulation responses in primary human T cells. Genome-wide loss-of-function screens identified essential T cell receptor signaling components and genes that negatively tune proliferation following stimulation. Targeted ablation of individual candidate genes validated hits and identified perturbations that enhanced cancer cell killing. SLICE coupled with single-cell RNA-Seq revealed signature stimulation-response gene programs altered by key genetic perturbations. SLICE genome-wide screening was also adaptable to identify mediators of immunosuppression, revealing genes controlling response to adenosine signaling. The SLICE platform enables unbiased discovery and characterization of functional gene targets in primary cells.
5,386 downloads immunology
Kathryn E. Yost, Ansuman T. Satpathy, Daniel K. Wells, Yanyan Qi, Chunlin Wang, Robin Kageyama, Katherine McNamara, Jeffrey M. Granja, Kavita Y. Sarin, Ryanne A. Brown, Rohit K. Gupta, Christina Curtis, Samantha L. Bucktrout, Mark M. Davis, Anne Lynn S. Chang, Howard Y. Chang
Immunotherapies that block inhibitory checkpoint receptors on T cells have transformed the clinical care of cancer patients. However, which tumor-specific T cells are mobilized following checkpoint blockade remains unclear. Here, we performed paired single-cell RNA- and T cell receptor (TCR)- sequencing on 79,046 cells from site-matched tumors from patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) pre- and post-anti-PD-1 therapy. Tracking TCR clones and transcriptional phenotypes revealed a coupling of tumor-recognition, clonal expansion, and T cell dysfunction: the T cell response to treatment was accompanied by clonal expansions of CD8+CD39+ T cells, which co-expressed markers of chronic T cell activation and exhaustion. However, this expansion did not derive from pre-existing tumor infiltrating T cell clones; rather, it comprised novel clonotypes, which were not previously observed in the same tumor. Clonal replacement of T cells was preferentially observed in exhausted CD8+ T cells, compared to other distinct T cell phenotypes, and was evident in BCC and SCC patients. These results, enabled by single-cell multi-omic profiling of clinical samples, demonstrate that pre-existing tumor-specific T cells may be limited in their capacity for re-invigoration, and that the T cell response to checkpoint blockade relies on the expansion of a distinct repertoire of T cell clones that may have just recently entered the tumor.
4,670 downloads immunology
Ricardo J Miragaia, T Gomes, Agnieszka Chomka, Laura Jardine, Angela Riedel, Ahmed N Hegazy, Ida Lindeman, Guy Emerton, Thomas Krausgruber, Jacqueline Shields, Muzlifah Haniffa, Fiona Powrie, Sarah A Teichmann
Non-lymphoid tissues (NLTs) harbour a pool of adaptive immune cells, the development and phenotype of which remains largely unexplored. Here, we used single-cell RNA-seq to characterise CD4+ regulatory (Treg) and memory (Tmem) T cells in mouse skin and colon, the respective draining lymph nodes and spleen. From this data, we modelled a continuous lymphoid-to-NLT trajectory for Treg, and reconstructed the mechanisms of cell migration and NLT adaption. This revealed a shared transcriptional programme of NLT priming in both skin and colon-associated lymph nodes, followed by tissue-specific adaptation. Predicted migration kinetics were validated using a melanoma-induction model, emphasizing the relevance of key regulators and receptors, including Batf, Rora, Ccr8, Samsn1. Finally, we profiled human blood and NLT Treg and Tmem cells, identifying cross-mammalian conserved tissue signatures. In summary, we have identified molecular signals mediating NLT Treg recruitment and tissue adaptation through the combined use of computational prediction and in vivo validation.
4,395 downloads immunology
Deepak A. Rao, Celine C Berthier, Arnon Arazi, Anne Davidson, Yanyan Liu, Edward P Browne, Thomas M. Eisenhaure, Adam Chicoine, David J. Lieb, Dawn E. Smilek, Patti Tosta, James A. Lederer, Michael B. Brenner, David Hildeman, E. Steve Woodle, David Wofsy, Jennifer H. Anolik, Matthias Kretzler, Nir Hacohen, Betty Diamond
OBJECTIVE: There is a critical need to define the cells that mediate tissue damage in lupus nephritis. Here we aimed to establish a protocol to preserve lupus nephritis kidney biopsies and urine cell samples obtained at multiple clinical sites for subsequent isolation and transcriptomic analysis of single cells. METHODS: Fresh and cryopreserved kidney tissue from tumor nephrectomies and lupus nephritis kidney biopsies were disaggregated by enzymatic digestion. Cell yields and cell composition were assessed by flow cytometry. Transcriptomes of leukocytes and epithelial cells were evaluated by low-input and single cell RNA-seq. RESULTS: Cryopreserved kidney tissue from tumor nephrectomies and lupus nephritis biopsies can be thawed and dissociated to yield intact, viable leukocytes and epithelial cells. Cryopreservation of intact kidney tissue provides higher epithelial cell yields compared to cryopreservation of single cell suspensions from dissociated kidneys. Cell yields and flow cytometric cell phenotypes are comparable between cryopreserved kidney samples and paired kidney samples shipped overnight on wet ice. High-quality single cell and low-input transcriptomic data were generated from leukocytes from both cryopreserved lupus nephritis kidney biopsies and urine, as well as from a subset of kidney epithelial cells. CONCLUSION: The AMP RA/SLE cryopreserved tissue analysis pipeline provides a method for centralized processing of lupus nephritis kidney biopsies and urine samples to generate robust transcriptomic analyses in multi-center studies.
4,313 downloads immunology
Human T cells coordinate adaptive immunity by localization in diverse tissue sites, though blood T cells are the most readily studied. Here, we used single-cell RNA-seq to define the functional responses of T cells isolated from human lungs, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and blood to TCR-stimulation. We reveal how human T cells in tissues relate to those in blood, and define activation states for CD4+ and CD8+T cells across all sites, including an interferon-response state for CD4+T cells and distinct effector states for CD8+T cells. We further show how profiles of individual tumor-associated T cells can be projected onto this healthy reference map, revealing their functional state.
4,183 downloads immunology
Myeloid cells localize to peripheral tissues in a wide range of pathologic contexts. However, appreciation of distinct myeloid subtypes has been limited by the signal averaging inherent to bulk sequencing approaches. Here we applied single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to map cellular heterogeneity in lung fibrosis induced by bleomycin injury in mice. We first developed a computational framework that enables unbiased, granular cell-type annotation of scRNA-seq. This approach identified a macrophage subpopulation that was specific to injured lung and notable for high expression of Cx3cr1+ and MHCII genes. We found that these macrophages, which bear a gene expression profile consistent with monocytic origin, progressively acquire alveolar macrophage identity and localize to sites of fibroblast accumulation. Probing their functional role, in vitro studies showed a trophic effect of these cells on fibroblast activation, and ablation of Cx3cr1-expressing cells suppressed fibrosis in vivo. We also found by gene set analysis and immunofluorescence that markers of these macrophages were upregulated in samples from patients with lung fibrosis compared with healthy controls. Taken together, our results uncover a specific pathologic subgroup of macrophages with markers that could enable their therapeutic targeting for fibrosis.
3,859 downloads immunology
Fan Zhang, Kevin Wei, Kamil Slowikowski, Chamith Y. Fonseka, Deepak A. Rao, Stephen Kelly, Susan M. Goodman, Darren Tabechian, Laura B. Hughes, Karen Salomon-Escoto, Gerald F. M. Watts, William Apruzzese, David J. Lieb, David L. Boyle, Arthur M. Mandelin, Accelerating Medicines Partnership: RA Phase 1, AMP RA/SLE, Brendan F. Boyce, Edward DiCarlo, Ellen M. Gravallese, Solbritt Rantapää Dahlqvist, Larry Moreland, Gary S. Firestein, Nir Hacohen, Chad Nusbaum, James A. Lederer, Harris Perlman, Costantino Pitzalis, Andrew Filer, V. Michael Holers, Vivian P. Bykerk, Laura T. Donlin, Jennifer H. Anolik, Michael B. Brenner, Soumya Raychaudhuri
To define the cell populations in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) driving joint inflammation, we applied single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq), mass cytometry, bulk RNA-seq, and flow cytometry to sorted T cells, B cells, monocytes, and fibroblasts from 51 synovial tissue RA and osteoarthritis (OA) patient samples. Utilizing an integrated computational strategy based on canonical correlation analysis to 5,452 scRNA-seq profiles, we identified 18 unique cell populations. Combining mass cytometry and transcriptomics together revealed cell states expanded in RA synovia: THY1+HLAhigh sublining fibroblasts (OR=33.8), IL1B+ pro-inflammatory monocytes (OR=7.8), CD11c+T-bet+ autoimmune-associated B cells (OR=5.7), and PD-1+ Tph/Tfh (OR=3.0). We also defined CD8+ T cell subsets characterized by GZMK+, GZMB+, and GNLY+ expression. Using bulk and single-cell data, we mapped inflammatory mediators to source cell populations, for example attributing IL6 production to THY1+HLAhigh fibroblasts and naive B cells, and ILB to pro-inflammatory monocytes. These populations are potentially key mediators of RA pathogenesis.
3,792 downloads immunology
David Schafflick, Chenling A. Xu, Maike Hartlehnert, Michael Cole, Tobias Lautwein, Andreas Schulte-Mecklenbeck, Jolien Wolbert, Michael Heming, Sven G. Meuth, Tanja Kuhlmann, Catharina C. Gross, Heinz Wiendl, Nir Yosef, Gerd Meyer zu Horste
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protects the central nervous system (CNS) and analyzing CSF aids the diagnosis of CNS diseases, but our understanding of CSF leukocytes remains superficial. Here, we firstly provide a transcriptional map of single leukocytes in CSF compared to blood. Leukocyte composition and transcriptome were compartment-specific with CSF-enrichment of myeloid dendritic cells and a border-associated phenotype of monocytes. We secondly tested how multiple sclerosis (MS) - an autoimmune disease of the CNS - affected both compartments. MS increased transcriptional diversity in blood, while it preferentially increased cell type diversity in CSF. In addition to the known expansion of B lineage cells, we identified an increase of cytotoxic-phenotype and follicular T helper (TFH) cells in the CSF. In mice, TFH cells accordingly promoted B cell infiltration into the CNS and severity of MS animal models. Immune mechanisms in MS are thus highly compartmentalized and indicate local T/B cell interaction.
3,753 downloads immunology
JC Martin, G Boschetti, C Chang, R Ungaro, M Giri, LS Chuang, S Nayar, A Greenstein, M. Dubinsky, L Walker, A Leader, JS Fine, CE Whitehurst, L Mbow, S Kugathasan, L.A. Denson, J. Hyams, JR Friedman, P Desai, HM Ko, I Laface, Guray Akturk, EE Schadt, S Gnjatic, A. Rahman, M Merad, JH Cho, E Kenigsberg
Clinical benefits to cytokine blockade in ill Crohn's disease (iCD) have been limited to a subset of patients. Whether cellular and molecular heterogeneity contributes to variability in treatment responses has been unclear. Using single cell technologies combining scRNAseq, CyTOF and multiplex tissue imaging, we mapped the cellular landscape of inflamed ileum lesions, adjacent non-inflamed ileum and matched circulating blood cells of iCD patients. In inflamed tissues, we identified a pathogenic module characterized by an inflammatory mononuclear phagocyte (Inf.MNP)-associated cellular response organized around inflammatory macrophages and mature dendritic cells in a subset of iCD patients. We confirmed the Inf.MNP-associated cellular response in 4 independent iCD cohorts (n=441) and showed that presence of this pathogenic module at diagnosis correlated with primary resistance to anti-TNF therapy. Single cell mapping of iCD tissues identifies a complex cellular signature of anti-TNF resistance thereby revealing novel biomarkers of treatment response and tailored therapeutic opportunities.
3,708 downloads immunology
New immunological assays now enable rich measurements of human immune function, but difficulty attaining enough measurements across sufficiently large and diverse cohorts has hindered describing normal human immune physiology on a large scale. Here we present the 10,000 Immunomes Project (10KIP), a diverse human immunology reference derived from over 44,000 individuals across 242 studies from ImmPort, a publicly available resource of raw immunology study data and protocols. We carefully curated datasets, aggregating subjects from healthy/control arms and harmonizing data across studies. We demonstrate 10KIP's utility by describing variations in serum cytokines and leukocytes by age, race, and sex; defining a baseline cell-cytokine network; and using 10KIP as a common control to describe immunologic changes in pregnancy. Subject-level data is available for interactive visualization and download at http://10kImmunomes.org/. We believe 10KIP can serve as a common control cohort and will accelerate hypothesis generation by clinical and basic immunologists across diverse populations.
3,665 downloads immunology
Serghei Mangul, Igor Mandric, Harry Taegyun Yang, Nicolas Strauli, Dennis Montoya, Jeremy Rotman, Will Van Der Wey, Jiem R. Ronas, Benjamin Statz, Douglas Yao, Alex Zelikovsky, Roberto Spreafico, Sagiv Shifman, Noah Zaitlen, Maura Rossetti, K. Mark Ansel, Eleazar Eskin
Assay-based approaches provide a detailed view of the adaptive immune system by profiling T and B cell receptor repertoires. However, these methods come at a high cost and lack the scale of standard RNA sequencing (RNA-seq). Here we report the development of ImReP, a novel computational method for rapid and accurate profiling of the adaptive immune repertoire from regular RNA-Seq data. We applied it to 8,555 samples across 544 individuals from 53 tissues from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx v6) project. ImReP is able to efficiently extract TCR- and BCR- derived reads from the RNA-Seq data and accurately assemble the complementarity determining regions 3 (CDR3s), the most variable regions of B- and T-cell receptors determining their antigen specificity. Using ImReP, we have created the systematic atlas of immunological sequences for B- and T-cell repertoires across a broad range of tissue types, most of which have not been studied for B and T cell receptor repertoires. We have also examined the compositional similarities of clonal populations between the GTEx tissues to track the flow of T- and B- clonotypes across immune-related tissues, including secondary lymphoid organs and organs encompassing mucosal, exocrine, and endocrine sites. The atlas of T- and B-cell receptor receptors, freely available at https://sergheimangul.wordpress.com/atlas-immune-repertoires/, is the largest collection of CDR3 sequences and tissue types. We anticipate this recourse will enhance future studies in areas such as immunology and advance development of therapies for human diseases. ImReP is freely available at https://sergheimangul.wordpress.com/imrep/ .
3,371 downloads immunology
F.A. Vieira Braga, G. Kar, M. Berg, O.A. Carpaij, Krzysztof Polański, L.M. Simon, S. Brouwer, T Gomes, L. Hesse, J. Jiang, E.S. Fasouli, M Efremova, R Vento-Tormo, K. Affleck, S. Palit, P. Strzelecka, H.V. Firth, K.T.A. Mahbubani, A. Cvejic, K.B. Meyer, K. Saeb-Parsy, M. Luinge, C.-A. Brandsma, W. Timens, I. Angelidis, M. Strunz, G.H. Koppelman, A.J. van Oosterhout, H.B. Schiller, F.J. Theis, M. van den Berge, M.C. Nawijn, Sarah A Teichmann
Human lungs enable efficient gas exchange, and form an interface with the environment which depends on mucosal immunity for protection against infectious agents. Tightly controlled interactions between structural and immune cells are required to maintain lung homeostasis. Here, we use single cell transcriptomics to chart the cellular landscape of upper and lower airways and lung parenchyma in health. We report location-dependent airway epithelial cell states, and a novel subset of tissue-resident memory T cells. In lower airways of asthma patients, mucous cell hyperplasia is shown to stem from a novel mucous ciliated cell state, as well as goblet cell hyperplasia. We report presence of pathogenic effector Th2 cells in asthma, and find evidence for type-2 cytokines in maintaining the altered epithelial cell states. Unbiased analysis of cell-cell interactions identify a shift from airway structural cell communication in health to a Th2-dominated interactome in asthma.
3,209 downloads immunology
Rachel C. Lynn, Evan W. Weber, David Gennert, Elena Sotillo, Peng Xu, Zinaida Good, Hima Anbunathan, Robert Jones, Victor Tieu, Jeffrey Granja, Charles DeBourcy, Robbie Majzner, Ansuman T. Satpathy, Stephen R. Quake, Howard Chang, Crystal L. Mackall
CAR T cells mediate antitumor effects in a small subset of cancer patients, but dysfunction due to T cell exhaustion is an important barrier to progress. To investigate the biology of exhaustion in human T cells expressing CAR receptors, we used a model system employing a tonically signaling CAR, which induces hallmarks of exhaustion described in other settings. Exhaustion was associated with a profound defect in IL-2 production alongside increased chromatin accessibility of AP-1 transcription factor motifs, and overexpression of bZIP and IRF transcription factors that have been implicated in driving exhaustion. Here we demonstrate that engineering CAR T cells to overexpress c-Jun, a canonical AP-1 factor, enhanced expansion potential, increased functional capacity, diminished terminal differentiation and improved antitumor potency in five different in vivo tumor models. We conclude that a functional deficiency in c-Jun mediates dysfunction in exhausted human T cells and that engineering CAR T cells to overexpress c-Jun renders them exhaustion-resistant, thereby addressing a major barrier to progress for this emerging class of therapeutics.
3,170 downloads immunology
T helper type 2 (Th2) cells are important regulators of mammalian adaptive immunity and have relevance for infection, auto-immunity and tumour immunology. Using a newly developed, genome-wide retroviral CRISPR knock-out (KO) library, combined with RNA-seq, ATAC-seq and ChIP-seq, we have dissected the regulatory circuitry governing activation (including proliferation) and differentiation of these cells. Our experiments distinguish cell activation versus differentiation in a quantitative framework. We demonstrate that these two processes are tightly coupled and are jointly controlled by many transcription factors, metabolic genes and cytokine/receptor pairs. There is only a small number of genes regulating differentiation without any role in activation. Our study provides an atlas for the T helper cell regulatory network, pinpointing key players of Th2 differentiation and demonstrating remarkable plasticity between the diverse T helper cell fates. We provide an online resource for interactive data querying at: http://data.teichlab.org.
2,996 downloads immunology
Inflammasomes are multi-protein signalling scaffolds that assemble in response to invasive pathogens and sterile danger signals to activate inflammatory caspases (1/4/5/11), which trigger inflammatory death (pyroptosis) and processing and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines (1,2). Inflammasome activation contributes to many human diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, gout, type II diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and sepsis, the often fatal response to systemic infection (3-6). The recent identification of the pore-forming protein gasdermin D (GSDMD) as the final pyroptosis executioner downstream of inflammasome activation presents an attractive drug target for these diseases (7-11). Here we show that disulfiram, a drug used to treat alcohol addiction (12), and Bay 11-7082, a previously identified NF-kappaB inhibitor (13), potently inhibit GSDMD pore formation in liposomes and inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis and IL-1beta secretion in human and mouse cells. Moreover, disulfiram, administered at a clinically well-tolerated dose, inhibits LPS-induced septic death and IL-1beta secretion in mice. Both compounds covalently modify a conserved Cys (Cys191 in human and Cys192 in mouse GSDMD) that is critical for pore formation (8,14). Inflammatory caspases employ Cys active sites, and many previously identified inhibitors of inflammatory mediators, including those against NLRP3 and NF-kappaB, covalently modify reactive cysteine residues (15). Since NLRP3 and noncanonical inflammasome activation are amplified by cellular oxidative stress (16-22), these redox-sensitive reactive cysteine residues may regulate inflammation endogenously, and compounds that covalently modify reactive cysteines may inhibit inflammation by acting at multiple steps. Indeed, both disulfiram and Bay 11-7082 also directly inhibit inflammatory caspases and pleiotropically suppress multiple processes in inflammation triggered by both canonical and noncanonical inflammasomes, including priming, puncta formation and caspase activation. Hence, cysteine-reactive compounds, despite their lack of specificity, may be attractive agents for reducing inflammation.
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