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in category genetics
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40,971 downloads genetics
Wolfgang Haak, Iosif Lazaridis, Nick Patterson, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Bastien Llamas, Guido Brandt, Susanne Nordenfelt, Eadaoin Harney, Kristin Stewardson, Qiaomei Fu, Alissa Mittnik, Eszter Bánffy, Christos Economou, Michael Francken, Susanne Friederich, Rafael Garrido Pena, Fredrik Hallgren, Valery Khartanovich, Aleksandr Khokhlov, Michael Kunst, Pavel Kuznetsov, Harald Meller, Oleg Mochalov, Vayacheslav Moiseyev, Nicole Nicklisch, Sandra L. Pichler, Roberto Risch, Manuel A. Rojo Guerra, Christina Roth, Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Joachim Wahl, Matthias Meyer, Johannes Krause, Dorcas Brown, David Anthony, Alan Cooper, Kurt Werner Alt, David Reich
We generated genome-wide data from 69 Europeans who lived between 8,000-3,000 years ago by enriching ancient DNA libraries for a target set of almost four hundred thousand polymorphisms. Enrichment of these positions decreases the sequencing required for genome-wide ancient DNA analysis by a median of around 250-fold, allowing us to study an order of magnitude more individuals than previous studies and to obtain new insights about the past. We show that the populations of western and far eastern Europe followed opposite trajectories between 8,000-5,000 years ago. At the beginning of the Neolithic period in Europe, ~8,000-7,000 years ago, closely related groups of early farmers appeared in Germany, Hungary, and Spain, different from indigenous hunter-gatherers, whereas Russia was inhabited by a distinctive population of hunter-gatherers with high affinity to a ~24,000 year old Siberian6. By ~6,000-5,000 years ago, a resurgence of hunter-gatherer ancestry had occurred throughout much of Europe, but in Russia, the Yamnaya steppe herders of this time were descended not only from the preceding eastern European hunter-gatherers, but from a population of Near Eastern ancestry. Western and Eastern Europe came into contact ~4,500 years ago, as the Late Neolithic Corded Ware people from Germany traced ~3/4 of their ancestry to the Yamnaya, documenting a massive migration into the heartland of Europe from its eastern periphery. This steppe ancestry persisted in all sampled central Europeans until at least ~3,000 years ago, and is ubiquitous in present-day Europeans. These results provide support for the theory of a steppe origin of at least some of the Indo-European languages of Europe.
33,152 downloads genetics
Iain Mathieson, Iosif Lazaridis, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Nick Patterson, Songul Alpaslan Roodenberg, Eadaoin Harney, Kristin Stewardson, Daniel Fernandes, Mario Novak, Kendra Sirak, Cristina Gamba, Eppie R. Jones, Bastien Llamas, Stanislav Dryomov, Joseph Pickrell, Juan Luis Arsuaga, Jose Maria Bermudez de Castro, Eudald Carbonell, Fokke Gerritsen, Aleksandr Khokhlov, Pavel Kuznetsov, Marina Lozano, Harald Meller, Oleg Mochalov, Vayacheslav Moiseyev, Manuel A. Rojo Guerra, Jacob Roodenberg, Josep Maria Verges, Johannes Krause, Alan Cooper, Kurt W. Alt, Dorcas Brown, David Anthony, Carles Lalueza-Fox, Wolfgang Haak, Ron Pinhasi, David Reich
The arrival of farming in Europe around 8,500 years ago necessitated adaptation to new environments, pathogens, diets, and social organizations. While indirect evidence of adaptation can be detected in patterns of genetic variation in present-day people, ancient DNA makes it possible to witness selection directly by analyzing samples from populations before, during and after adaptation events. Here we report the first genome-wide scan for selection using ancient DNA, capitalizing on the largest genome-wide dataset yet assembled: 230 West Eurasians dating to between 6500 and 1000 BCE, including 163 with newly reported data. The new samples include the first genome-wide data from the Anatolian Neolithic culture, who we show were members of the population that was the source of Europe's first farmers, and whose genetic material we extracted by focusing on the DNA-rich petrous bone. We identify genome-wide significant signatures of selection at loci associated with diet, pigmentation and immunity, and two independent episodes of selection on height.
20,694 downloads genetics
Iosif Lazaridis, Dani Nadel, Gary Rollefson, Deborah C Merrett, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Daniel Fernandes, Mario Novak, Beatriz Gamarra, Kendra Sirak, Sarah Connell, Kristin Stewardson, Eadaoin Harney, Qiaomei Fu, Gloria Gonzalez-Fortes, Songül Alpaslan Roodenberg, György Lengyel, Fanny Bocquentin, Boris Gasparian, Janet M. Monge, Michael Gregg, Vered Eshed, Ahuva-Sivan Mizrahi, Christopher Meiklejohn, Fokke Gerritsen, Luminita Bejenaru, Matthias Blueher, Archie Campbell, Gianpero Cavalleri, David Comas, Philippe Froguel, Edmund Gilbert, Shona M. Kerr, Peter Kovacs, Johannes Krause, Darren McGettigan, Michael Merrigan, D. Andrew Merriwether, Seamus O’Reilly, Martin B. Richards, Ornella Semino, Michel Shamoon-Pour, Gheorghe Stefanescu, Michael Stumvoll, Anke Tönjes, Antonio Torroni, James F Wilson, Loic Yengo, Nelli A. Hovhannisyan, Nick Patterson, Ron Pinhasi, David Reich
We report genome-wide ancient DNA from 44 ancient Near Easterners ranging in time between ~12,000-1,400 BCE, from Natufian hunter-gatherers to Bronze Age farmers. We show that the earliest populations of the Near East derived around half their ancestry from a 'Basal Eurasian' lineage that had little if any Neanderthal admixture and that separated from other non-African lineages prior to their separation from each other. The first farmers of the southern Levant (Israel and Jordan) and Zagros Mountains (Iran) were strongly genetically differentiated, and each descended from local hunter-gatherers. By the time of the Bronze Age, these two populations and Anatolian-related farmers had mixed with each other and with the hunter-gatherers of Europe to drastically reduce genetic differentiation. The impact of the Near Eastern farmers extended beyond the Near East: farmers related to those of Anatolia spread westward into Europe; farmers related to those of the Levant spread southward into East Africa; farmers related to those from Iran spread northward into the Eurasian steppe; and people related to both the early farmers of Iran and to the pastoralists of the Eurasian steppe spread eastward into South Asia.
18,018 downloads genetics
Iosif Lazaridis, Nick Patterson, Alissa Mittnik, Gabriel Renaud, Swapan Mallick, Karola Kirsanow, Peter H Sudmant, Joshua G Schraiber, Sergi Castellano, Mark Lipson, Bonnie Berger, Christos Economou, Ruth Bollongino, Qiaomei Fu, Kirsten I. Bos, Susanne Nordenfelt, Heng Li, Cesare de Filippo, Kay Prüfer, Susanna Sawyer, Cosimo Posth, Wolfgang Haak, Fredrik Hallgren, Elin Fornander, Nadin Rohland, Dominique Delsate, Michael Francken, Jean-Michel Guinet, Joachim Wahl, George Ayodo, Hamza A. Babiker, Graciela Bailliet, Elena Balanovska, Oleg Balanovsky, Ramiro Barrantes, Gabriel Bedoya, Haim Ben-Ami, Judit Bene, Fouad Berrada, Claudio M. Bravi, Francesca Brisighelli, George Busby, Francesco Cali, Mikhail Churnosov, David E. C. Cole, Daniel Corach, Larissa Damba, George van Driem, Stanislav Dryomov, Jean-Michel Dugoujon, Sardana A. Fedorova, Irene Gallego Romero, Marina Gubina, Michael Hammer, Brenna Henn, Tor Hervig, Ugur Hodoglugil, Aashish R Jha, Sena Karachanak-Yankova, Rita Khusainova, Elza Khusnutdinova, Rick Kittles, Toomas Kivisild, William Klitz, Vaidutis Kučinskas, Alena Kushniarevich, Leila Laredj, Sergey Litvinov, Theologos Loukidis, Robert W. Mahley, Béla Melegh, Ene Metspalu, Julio Molina, Joanna Mountain, Klemetti Näkkäläjärvi, Desislava Nesheva, Thomas Nyambo, Ludmila Osipova, Jüri Parik, Fedor Platonov, Olga Posukh, Valentino Romano, Francisco Rothhammer, Igor Rudan, Ruslan Ruizbakiev, Hovhannes Sahakyan, Antti Sajantila, Antonio Salas, Elena B. Starikovskaya, Ayele Tarekegn, Draga Toncheva, Shahlo Turdikulova, Ingrida Uktveryte, Olga Utevska, René Vasquez, Mercedes Villena, Mikhail Voevoda, Cheryl Winkler, Levon Yepiskoposyan, Pierre Zalloua, Tatijana Zemunik, Alan Cooper, Cristian Capelli, Mark G. Thomas, Andres Ruiz-Linares, Sarah A. Tishkoff, Lalji Singh, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Richard Villems, David Comas, Rem Sukernik, Mait Metspalu, Matthias Meyer, Evan E Eichler, Joachim Burger, Montgomery Slatkin, Svante Pääbo, Janet Kelso, David Reich, Johannes Krause
We sequenced genomes from a ~7,000 year old early farmer from Stuttgart in Germany, an ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherer from Luxembourg, and seven ~8,000 year old hunter-gatherers from southern Sweden. We analyzed these data together with other ancient genomes and 2,345 contemporary humans to show that the great majority of present-day Europeans derive from at least three highly differentiated populations: West European Hunter-Gatherers (WHG), who contributed ancestry to all Europeans but not to Near Easterners; Ancient North Eurasians (ANE), who were most closely related to Upper Paleolithic Siberians and contributed to both Europeans and Near Easterners; and Early European Farmers (EEF), who were mainly of Near Eastern origin but also harbored WHG-related ancestry. We model these populations' deep relationships and show that EEF had ~44% ancestry from a "Basal Eurasian" lineage that split prior to the diversification of all other non-African lineages.
15,728 downloads genetics
Iain Mathieson, Songül Alpaslan Roodenberg, Cosimo Posth, Anna Szécsényi-Nagy, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Iñigo Olalde, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Francesca Candilio, Olivia Cheronet, Daniel Fernandes, Matthew Ferry, Beatriz Gamarra, Gloria González Fortes, Wolfgang Haak, Eadaoin Harney, Eppie Jones, Denise Keating, Ben Krause-Kyora, Isil Kucukkalipci, Megan Michel, Alissa Mittnik, Kathrin Nägele, Mario Novak, Jonas Oppenheimer, Nick Patterson, Saskia Pfrengle, Kendra Sirak, Kristin Stewardson, Stefania Vai, Stefan Alexandrov, Kurt W. Alt, Radian Andreescu, Dragana Antonović, Abigail Ash, Nadezhda Atanassova, Krum Bacvarov, Mende Balázs Gusztáv, Hervé Bocherens, Michael Bolus, Adina Boroneanţ, Yavor Boyadzhiev, Alicja Budnik, Josip Burmaz, Stefan Chohadzhiev, Nicholas J. Conard, Richard Cottiaux, Maja Čuka, Christophe Cupillard, Dorothée G. Drucker, Nedko Elenski, Michael Francken, Borislava Galabova, Georgi Ganetovski, Bernard Gély, Tamás Hajdu, Veneta Handzhyiska, Katerina Harvati, Thomas Higham, Stanislav Iliev, Ivor Janković, Ivor Karavanić, Douglas J. Kennett, Darko Komšo, Alexandra Kozak, Damian Labuda, Martina Lari, Catalin Lazar, Maleen Leppek, Krassimir Leshtakov, Domenico Lo Vetro, Dženi Los, Ivaylo Lozanov, Maria Malina, Fabio Martini, Kath McSweeney, Harald Meller, Marko Menđušić, Pavel Mirea, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Vanya Petrova, T. Douglas Price, Angela Simalcsik, Luca Sineo, Mario Šlaus, Vladimir Slavchev, Petar Stanev, Andrej Starović, Tamás Szeniczey, Sahra Talamo, Maria Teschler-Nicola, Corinne Thevenet, Ivan Valchev, Frédérique Valentin, Sergey Vasilyev, Fanica Veljanovska, Svetlana Venelinova, Elizaveta Veselovskaya, Bence Viola, Cristian Virag, Joško Zaninović, Steve Zäuner, Philipp W. Stockhammer, Giulio Catalano, Raiko Krauß, David Caramelli, Gunita Zariņa, Bisserka Gaydarska, Malcolm Lillie, Alexey G. Nikitin, Inna Potekhina, Anastasia Papathanasiou, Dušan Borić, Clive Bonsall, Johannes Krause, Ron Pinhasi, David Reich
Farming was first introduced to southeastern Europe in the mid-7th millennium BCE - brought by migrants from Anatolia who settled in the region before spreading throughout Europe. To clarify the dynamics of the interaction between the first farmers and indigenous hunter-gatherers where they first met, we analyze genome-wide ancient DNA data from 223 individuals who lived in southeastern Europe and surrounding regions between 12,000 and 500 BCE. We document previously uncharacterized genetic structure, showing a West-East cline of ancestry in hunter-gatherers, and show that some Aegean farmers had ancestry from a different lineage than the northwestern Anatolian lineage that formed the overwhelming ancestry of other European farmers. We show that the first farmers of northern and western Europe passed through southeastern Europe with limited admixture with local hunter-gatherers, but that some groups mixed extensively, with relatively sex-balanced admixture compared to the male-biased hunter-gatherer admixture that prevailed later in the North and West. Southeastern Europe continued to be a nexus between East and West after farming arrived, with intermittent genetic contact from the Steppe up to 2000 years before the migration that replaced much of northern Europe's population.
15,699 downloads genetics
Detection of recent natural selection is a challenging problem in population genetics, as standard methods generally integrate over long timescales. Here we introduce the Singleton Density Score (SDS), a powerful measure to infer very recent changes in allele frequencies from contemporary genome sequences. When applied to data from the UK10K Project, SDS reflects allele frequency changes in the ancestors of modern Britons during the past 2,000 years. We see strong signals of selection at lactase and HLA, and in favor of blond hair and blue eyes. Turning to signals of polygenic adaptation we find, remarkably, that recent selection for increased height has driven allele frequency shifts across most of the genome. Moreover, we report suggestive new evidence for polygenic shifts affecting many other complex traits. Our results suggest that polygenic adaptation has played a pervasive role in shaping genotypic and phenotypic variation in modern humans.
13,858 downloads genetics
The Armenians are a culturally isolated population who historically inhabited a region in the Near East bounded by the Mediterranean and Black seas and the Caucasus, but remain underrepresented in genetic studies and have a complex history including a major geographic displacement during World War One. Here, we analyse genome-wide variation in 173 Armenians and compare them to 78 other worldwide populations. We find that Armenians form a distinctive cluster linking the Near East, Europe, and the Caucasus. We show that Armenian diversity can be explained by several mixtures of Eurasian populations that occurred between ~3,000 and ~2,000 BCE, a period characterized by major population migrations after the domestication of the horse, appearance of chariots, and the rise of advanced civilizations in the Near East. However, genetic signals of population mixture cease after ~1,200 BCE when Bronze Age civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean world suddenly and violently collapsed. Armenians have since remained isolated and genetic structure within the population developed ~500 years ago when Armenia was divided between the Ottomans and the Safavid Empire in Iran. Finally, we show that Armenians have higher genetic affinity to Neolithic Europeans than other present-day Near Easterners, and that 29% of the Armenian ancestry may originate from an ancestral population best represented by Neolithic Europeans.
13,312 downloads genetics
Alissa Mittnik, Chuan-Chao Wang, Saskia Pfrengle, Mantas Daubaras, Gunita Zariņa, Fredrik Hallgren, Raili Allmäe, Valery Khartanovich, Vyacheslav Moiseyev, Anja Furtwängler, Aida Andrades Valtueña, Michal Feldman, Christos Economou, Markku Oinonen, Andrejs Vasks, Mari Tõrv, Oleg Balanovsky, David Reich, Rimantas Jankauskas, Wolfgang Haak, Stephan Schiffels, Johannes Krause
Recent ancient DNA studies have revealed that the genetic history of modern Europeans was shaped by a series of migration and admixture events between deeply diverged groups. While these events are well described in Central and Southern Europe, genetic evidence from Northern Europe surrounding the Baltic Sea is still sparse. Here we report genome-wide DNA data from 24 ancient North Europeans ranging from ~7,500 to 200 calBCE spanning the transition from a hunter-gatherer to an agricultural lifestyle, as well as the adoption of bronze metallurgy. We show that Scandinavia was settled after the retreat of the glacial ice sheets from a southern and a northern route, and that the first Scandinavian Neolithic farmers derive their ancestry from Anatolia 1000 years earlier than previously demonstrated. The range of Western European Mesolithic hunter-gatherers extended to the east of the Baltic Sea, where these populations persisted without gene-flow from Central European farmers until around 2,900 calBCE when the arrival of steppe pastoralists introduced a major shift in economy and established wide-reaching networks of contact within the Corded Ware Complex.
12,627 downloads genetics
Clare Bycroft, Colin Freeman, Desislava Petkova, Gavin Band, Lloyd T Elliott, Kevin Sharp, Allan Motyer, Damjan Vukcevic, Olivier Delaneau, Jared O'Connell, Adrian Cortes, Samantha Welsh, Gil McVean, Stephen Leslie, Peter Donnelly, Jonathan Marchini
The UK Biobank project is a large prospective cohort study of ~500,000 individuals from across the United Kingdom, aged between 40-69 at recruitment. A rich variety of phenotypic and health-related information is available on each participant, making the resource unprecedented in its size and scope. Here we describe the genome-wide genotype data (~805,000 markers) collected on all individuals in the cohort and its quality control procedures. Genotype data on this scale offers novel opportunities for assessing quality issues, although the wide range of ancestries of the individuals in the cohort also creates particular challenges. We also conducted a set of analyses that reveal properties of the genetic data (such as population structure and relatedness) that can be important for downstream analyses. In addition, we phased and imputed genotypes into the dataset, using computationally efficient methods combined with the Haplotype Reference Consortium (HRC) and UK10K haplotype resource. This increases the number of testable variants by over 100-fold to ~96 million variants. We also imputed classical allelic variation at 11 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes, and as a quality control check of this imputation, we replicate signals of known associations between HLA alleles and many common diseases. We describe tools that allow efficient genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of multiple traits and fast phenome-wide association studies (PheWAS), which work together with a new compressed file format that has been used to distribute the dataset. As a further check of the genotyped and imputed datasets, we performed a test-case genome-wide association scan on a well-studied human trait, standing height.
10,591 downloads genetics
Genetic clustering algorithms, implemented in popular programs such as STRUCTURE and ADMIXTURE, have been used extensively in the characterisation of individuals and populations based on genetic data. A successful example is reconstruction of the genetic history of African Americans who are a product of recent admixture between highly differentiated populations. Histories can also be reconstructed using the same procedure for groups which do not have admixture in their recent history, where recent genetic drift is strong or that deviate in other ways from the underlying inference model. Unfortunately, such histories can be misleading. We have implemented an approach (badMIXTURE, available at github.com/danjlawson/badMIXTURE) to assess the goodness of fit of the model using the ancestry 'palettes' estimated by CHROMOPAINTER and apply it to both simulated and real examples. Combining these complementary analyses with additional methods that are designed to test specific hypothesis allows a richer and more robust analysis of recent demographic history based on genetic data.
8,609 downloads genetics
Naomi R. Wray, Stephan Ripke, Manuel Mattheisen, Maciej Trzaskowski, Enda M. Byrne, Abdel Abdellaoui, Mark J Adams, Esben Agerbo, Tracy M Air, Till F. M. Andlauer, Silviu-Alin Bacanu, Marie Bækvad-Hansen, Aartjan T F Beekman, Tim B Bigdeli, Elisabeth B. Binder, Douglas H R Blackwood, Julien Bryois, Henriette N. Buttenschøn, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, Na Cai, Enrique Castelao, Jane Hvarregaard Christensen, Toni-Kim Clarke, Jonathan R. I. Coleman, Lucía Colodro-Conde, Baptiste Couvy-Duchesne, Nick Craddock, Gregory E. Crawford, Cheynna A Crowley, Hassan S Dashti, Gail Davies, Ian J Deary, Franziska Degenhardt, Eske M Derks, Nese Direk, Conor V. Dolan, Erin C Dunn, Thalia C Eley, Nicholas Eriksson, Valentina Escott-Price, Farnush Farhadi Hassan Kiadeh, Hilary K Finucane, Andreas J. Forstner, Josef Frank, Héléna A Gaspar, Michael Gill, Paola Giusti-Rorínguez, Fernando S. Goes, Scott D Gordon, Jakob Grove, Lynsey S Hall, Christine Søholm Hansen, Thomas F Hansen, Stefan Herms, Ian B Hickie, Per Hoffmann, Georg Homuth, Carsten Horn, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, David M Hougaard, Ming Hu, Craig L Hyde, Marcus Ising, Rick Jansen, Fulai Jin, Eric Jorgenson, James A. Knowles, Isaac S. Kohane, Julia Kraft, Warren W. Kretzschmar, Jesper Krogh, Zoltan Kutalik, Jacqueline M. Lane, Yihan Li, Yun Li, Penelope A Lind, Xiaoxiao Liu, Leina Lu, Donald J MacIntyre, Dean F MacKinnon, Robert M. Maier, Wolfgang Maier, Jonathan Marchini, Hamdi Mbarek, Patrick McGrath, Peter McGuffin, Sarah E Medland, Divya Mehta, Christel M Middeldorp, Evelin Mihailov, Yuri Milaneschi, Lili Milani, Francis M Mondimore, Grant W. Montgomery, Sara Mostafavi, Niamh Mullins, Matthias Nauck, Bernard Ng, Michel G. Nivard, Dale R Nyholt, Paul F O’Reilly, Hogni Oskarsson, Michael J Owen, Jodie N Painter, Carsten Bøcker, Marianne Giørtz Pedersen, Roseann E. Peterson, Erik Pettersson, Wouter J Peyrot, Giorgio Pistis, Danielle Posthuma, Shaun M. Purcell, Jorge A Quiroz, Per Qvist, John P. Rice, Brien P. Riley, Margarita Rivera, Saira Saeed Mirza, Richa Saxena, Robert Schoevers, Eva C Schulte, Ling Shen, Jianxin Shi, Stanley I Shyn, Engilbert Sigurdsson, Grant C B Sinnamon, Johannes H Smit, Daniel J Smith, Hreinn Stefansson, Stacy Steinberg, Craig A. Stockmeier, Fabian Streit, Jana Strohmaier, Katherine E Tansey, Henning Teismann, Alexander Teumer, Wesley Thompson, Pippa a Thomson, Thorgeir E. Thorgeirsson, Chao Tian, Matthew Traylor, Jens Treutlein, Vassily Trubetskoy, André G. Uitterlinden, Daniel Umbricht, Sandra Van der Auwera, Albert M van Hemert, Alexander Viktorin, Peter M. Visscher, Yunpeng Wang, Bradley T Webb, Shantel Marie Weinsheimer, Jürgen Wellmann, Gonneke Willemsen, Stephanie H. Witt, Yang Wu, Hualin S Xi, Jian Yang, Futao Zhang, eQTLGen Consortium, 23andMe Research Team, Volker Arolt, Bernhard T. Baune, Klaus Berger, Dorret I Boomsma, Sven Cichon, udo Dannlowski, EJC de Geus, J. Raymond DePaulo, Enrico Domenici, Katharina Domschke, Tönu Esko, Hans J Grabe, Steven P Hamilton, Caroline Hayward, Andrew C Heath, David A. Hinds, Kenneth S. Kendler, Stefan Kloiber, Glyn Lewis, Qingqin S Li, Susanne Lucae, Pamela A.F. Madden, Patrik K Magnusson, Nicholas G Martin, Andrew M McIntosh, Andres Metspalu, Ole Mors, Preben Bo Mortensen, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Merete Nordentoft, Markus M Nöthen, Michael C O’Donovan, Sara A Paciga, Nancy L. Pedersen, Brenda W.J.H. Penninx, Roy H Perlis, David J Porteous, James B. Potash, Martin Preisig, Marcella Rietschel, Catherine Schaefer, Thomas G. Schulze, Jordan W. Smoller, Kari Stefansson, Henning Tiemeier, Rudolf Uher, Henry Völzke, Myrna M. Weissman, Thomas Werge, Ashley R Winslow, Cathryn M Lewis, Douglas F. Levinson, Gerome Breen, Anders D. Børglum, Patrick F Sullivan, for the Major Depressive Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a notably complex illness with a lifetime prevalence of 14%. 1 It is often chronic or recurrent and is thus accompanied by considerable morbidity, excess mortality, substantial costs, and heightened risk of suicide. 2-7 MDD is a major cause of disability worldwide. 8 We conducted a genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis in 130,664 MDD cases and 330,470 controls, and identified 44 independent loci that met criteria for statistical significance. We present extensive analyses of these results which provide new insights into the nature of MDD. The genetic findings were associated with clinical features of MDD, and implicated prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex in the pathophysiology of MDD (regions exhibiting anatomical differences between MDD cases and controls). Genes that are targets of antidepressant medications were strongly enriched for MDD association signals (P=8.5x10-10), suggesting the relevance of these findings for improved pharmacotherapy of MDD. Sets of genes involved in gene splicing and in creating isoforms were also enriched for smaller MDD GWA P-values, and these gene sets have also been implicated in schizophrenia and autism. Genetic risk for MDD was correlated with that for many adult and childhood onset psychiatric disorders. Our analyses suggested important relations of genetic risk for MDD with educational attainment, body mass, and schizophrenia: the genetic basis of lower educational attainment and higher body mass were putatively causal for MDD whereas MDD and schizophrenia reflected a partly shared biological etiology. All humans carry lesser or greater numbers of genetic risk factors for MDD, and a continuous measure of risk underlies the observed clinical phenotype. MDD is not a distinct entity that neatly demarcates normalcy from pathology but rather a useful clinical construct associated with a range of adverse outcomes and the end result of a complex process of intertwined genetic and environmental effects. These findings help refine and define the fundamental basis of MDD.
8,454 downloads genetics
Ditte Demontis, Raymond K Walters, Joanna Martin, Manuel Mattheisen, Thomas Damm Als, Esben Agerbo, Rich Belliveau, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, Marie Bækved-Hansen, Felecia Cerrato, Kimberly Chambert, Claire Churchhouse, Ashley Dumont, Nicholas Eriksson, Michael Gandal, Jacqueline Goldstein, Jakob Grove, Christine S. Hansen, Mads Hauberg, Mads Hollegaard, Daniel P Howrigan, Hailiang Huang, Julian Maller, Alicia R Martin, Jennifer Moran, Jonatan Pallesen, Duncan S Palmer, Carsten Bøcker Pedersen, Marianne Giørtz Pedersen, Timothy Poterba, Jesper Buchhave Poulsen, Stephan Ripke, Elise B Robinson, F. Kyle Satterstrom, Christine Stevens, Patrick Turley, Hyejung Won, - ADHD Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Con, - Early Lifecourse & Genetic Epidemiology (EAGLE), - 23andMe Research Team, Ole A Andreassen, Christie Burton, Dorret Boomsma, Bru Cormand, Søren Dalsgaard, Barbara Franke, Joel Gelernter, Daniel Geschwind, Hakon Hakonarson, Jan Haavik, Henry Kranzler, Jonna Kuntsi, Kate Langley, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Christel Middeldorp, Andreas Reif, Luis Augusto Rohde, Panos Roussos, Russell Schachar, Pamela Sklar, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Patrick F Sullivan, Anita Thapar, Joyce Tung, Irwin Waldman, Merete Nordentoft, David M Hougaard, Thomas Werge, Ole Mors, Preben Bo Mortensen, Mark J. Daly, Stephen V. Faraone, Anders D. Børglum, Benjamin M Neale
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable childhood behavioral disorder affecting 5% of school-age children and 2.5% of adults. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ADHD susceptibility, but no individual variants have been robustly associated with ADHD. We report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 20,183 ADHD cases and 35,191 controls that identifies variants surpassing genome-wide significance in 12 independent loci, revealing new and important information on the underlying biology of ADHD. Associations are enriched in evolutionarily constrained genomic regions and loss-of-function intolerant genes, as well as around brain-expressed regulatory marks. These findings, based on clinical interviews and/or medical records are supported by additional analyses of a self-reported ADHD sample and a study of quantitative measures of ADHD symptoms in the population. Meta-analyzing these data with our primary scan yielded a total of 16 genome-wide significant loci. The results support the hypothesis that clinical diagnosis of ADHD is an extreme expression of one or more continuous heritable traits.
8,330 downloads genetics
Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans brought largely by the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States, and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry.
8,196 downloads genetics
Yang Luo, Katrina M de Lange, Luke Jostins, Loukas Moutsianas, Joshua Randall, Nicholas A Kennedy, Christopher A Lamb, Shane McCarthy, Tariq Ahmad, Cathryn Edwards, Eva Goncalves Serra, Ailsa Hart, Chris Hawkey, John C Mansfield, Craig Mowat, William G Newman, Sam Nichols, Martin Pollard, Jack Satsangi, Alison Simmons, Mark Tremelling, Holm Uhlig, David C Wilson, James C Lee, Natalie J. Prescott, Charlie W Lees, Christopher G. Mathew, Miles Parkes, Jeffrey C Barrett, Carl A. Anderson
In order to further resolve the genetic architecture of the inflammatory bowel diseases, ulcerative colitis and Crohn′s disease, we sequenced the whole genomes of 4,280 patients at low coverage, and compared them to 3,652 previously sequenced population controls across 73.5 million variants. To increase power we imputed from these sequences into new and existing GWAS cohorts, and tested for association at ~12 million variants in a total of 16,432 cases and 18,843 controls. We discovered a 0.6% frequency missense variant in ADCY7 that doubles risk of ulcerative colitis, and offers insight into a new aspect of disease biology. Despite good statistical power, we did not identify any other new low-frequency risk variants, and found that such variants as a class explained little heritability. We did detect a burden of very rare, damaging missense variants in known Crohn′s disease risk genes, suggesting that more comprehensive sequencing studies will continue to improve our understanding of the biology of complex diseases.
8,117 downloads genetics
A major constraint on the evolution of large body sizes in animals is an increased risk of developing cancer. There is no correlation, however, between body size and cancer risk. This lack of correlation is often referred to as "Peto′s Paradox". Here we show that the elephant genome encodes 20 copies of the tumor suppressor gene TP53 and that the increase in TP53 copy number occurred coincident with the evolution of large body sizes in the elephant (Proboscidean) lineage. Furthermore we show that several of the TP53 retrogenes are transcribed and translated and contribute to an enhanced sensitivity of elephant cells to DNA damage and the induction of apoptosis via a hyperactive TP53 signaling pathway. These results suggest that an increase in the copy number of TP53 may have played a direct role in the evolution of very large body sizes and the resolution of Peto′s paradox in Proboscideans.
8,037 downloads genetics
Joelle A. Pasman, Karin J.H. Verweij, Zachary Gerring, Sven Stringer, Sandra Sanchez-Roige, Jorien L. Treur, Abdel Abdellaoui, Michel G. Nivard, Bart M.L. Baselmans, Jue-Sheng Ong, Hill F. Ip, Matthijs D. van der Zee, Meike Bartels, Felix R Day, Pierre Fontanillas, Sarah L. Elson, the 23andMe Research Team, Harriet de Wit, Lea K. Davis, James MacKillop, International Cannabis Consortium, Jaime L. Derringer, Susan J.T. Branje, Catharina A. Hartman, Andrew C Heath, Pol A.C. van Lier, Pamela A.F. Madden, Reedik Magi, Wim Meeus, Grant W. Montgomery, A. J. Oldehinkel, Zdenka Pausova, Josep A. Ramos-Quiroga, Thomas Paus, Marta Ribases, Jaakko Kaprio, Marco PM Boks, Jordana T Bell, Tim D Spector, Joel Gelernter, Dorret I Boomsma, Nicholas G Martin, Stuart MacGregor, John RB Perry, Abraham A Palmer, Danielle Posthuma, Marcus R Munafo, Nathan A Gillespie, Eske M Derks, Jacqueline M. Vink
Cannabis use is a heritable trait  that has been associated with adverse mental health outcomes. To identify risk variants and improve our knowledge of the genetic etiology of cannabis use, we performed the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis for lifetime cannabis use (N=184,765) to date. We identified 4 independent loci containing genome-wide significant SNP associations. Gene-based tests revealed 29 genome-wide significant genes located in these 4 loci and 8 additional regions. All SNPs combined explained 10% of the variance in lifetime cannabis use. The most significantly associated gene, CADM2, has previously been associated with substance use and risk-taking phenotypes [2-4]. We used S-PrediXcan to explore gene expression levels and found 11 unique eGenes. LD-score regression uncovered genetic correlations with smoking, alcohol use and mental health outcomes, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Mendelian randomisation analysis provided evidence for a causal positive influence of schizophrenia risk on lifetime cannabis use.
7,430 downloads genetics
Rosa Fregel, Fernado L. Mendez, Youssef Bokbot, Dimas Martin-Socas, Maria D. Camalich-Massieu, Jonathan Santana, Jacob Morales, Maria C. Avila-Arcos, Peter A. Underhill, Beth Shapiro, Genevieve L Wojcik, Morten Rasmussen, Andre E. R. Soares, Joshua Kapp, Alexandra Sockell, Francisco J. Rodriguez-Santos, Abdeslam Mikdad, Aioze Trujillo-Mederos, Carlos D Bustamante
The extent to which prehistoric migrations of farmers influenced the genetic pool of western North Africans remains unclear. Archaeological evidence suggests the Neolithization process may have happened through the adoption of innovations by local Epipaleolithic communities, or by demic diffusion from the Eastern Mediterranean shores or Iberia. Here, we present the first analysis of individuals' genome sequences from early and late Neolithic sites in Morocco, as well as Early Neolithic individuals from southern Iberia. We show that Early Neolithic Moroccans are distinct from any other reported ancient individuals and possess an endemic element retained in present-day Maghrebi populations, confirming a long-term genetic continuity in the region. Among ancient populations, Early Neolithic Moroccans are distantly related to Levantine Natufian hunter-gatherers (~9,000 BCE) and Pre-Pottery Neolithic farmers (~6,500 BCE). Although an expansion in Early Neolithic times is also plausible, the high divergence observed in Early Neolithic Moroccans suggests a long-term isolation and an early arrival in North Africa for this population. This scenario is consistent with early Neolithic traditions in North Africa deriving from Epipaleolithic communities who adopted certain innovations from neighbouring populations. Late Neolithic (~3,000 BCE) Moroccans, in contrast, share an Iberian component, supporting theories of trans-Gibraltar gene flow. Finally, the southern Iberian Early Neolithic samples share the same genetic composition as the Cardial Mediterranean Neolithic culture that reached Iberia ~5,500 BCE. The cultural and genetic similarities of the Iberian Neolithic cultures with that of North African Neolithic sites further reinforce the model of an Iberian migration into the Maghreb.
6,801 downloads genetics
Jeremy F McRae, Stephen Clayton, Tomas W Fitzgerald, Joanna Kaplanis, Elena Prigmore, Diana Rajan, Alejandro Sifrim, Stuart Aitken, Nadia Akawi, Mohsan Alvi, Kirsty Ambridge, Daniel M Barrett, Tanya Bayzetinova, Philip Jones, Wendy D Jones, Daniel King, Netravathi Krishnappa, Laura E Mason, Tarjinder Singh, Adrian R Tivey, Munaza Ahmed, Uruj Anjum, Hayley Archer, Ruth Armstrong, Jana Awada, Meena Balasubramanian, Siddharth Banka, Diana Baralle, Angela Barnicoat, Paul Batstone, David Baty, Chris Bennett, Jonathan Berg, Birgitta Bernhard, A Paul Bevan, Maria Bitner-Glindzicz, Edward Blair, Moira Blyth, David Bohanna, Louise Bourdon, David Bourn, Lisa Bradley, Angela Brady, Simon Brent, Carole Brewer, Kate Brunstrom, David J Bunyan, John Burn, Natalie Canham, Bruce Castle, Kate Chandler, Elena Chatzimichali, Deirdre Cilliers, Angus Clarke, Susan Clasper, Jill Clayton-Smith, Virginia Clowes, Andrea Coates, Trevor Cole, Irina Colgiu, Amanda Collins, Morag N Collinson, Fiona Connell, Nicola Cooper, Helen Cox, Lara Cresswell, Gareth Cross, Yanick Crow, Mariella D'Alessandro, Tabib Dabir, Rosemarie Davidson, Sally Davies, Dylan de Vries, John Dean, Charu Deshpande, Gemma Devlin, Abhijit Dixit, Angus Dobbie, Alan Donaldson, Dian Donnai, Deirdre Donnelly, Carina Donnelly, Angela Douglas, Sofia Douzgou, Alexis Duncan, Jacqueline Eason, Sian Ellard, Ian Ellis, Frances Elmslie, Karenza Evans, Sarah Everest, Tina Fendick, Richard Fisher, Frances Flinter, Nicola Foulds, Andrew Fry, Alan Fryer, Carol Gardiner, Lorraine Gaunt, Neeti Ghali, Richard Gibbons, Harinder Gill, Judith Goodship, David Goudie, Emma Gray, Andrew Green, Philip Greene, Lynn Greenhalgh, Susan Gribble, Rachel Harrison, Lucy Harrison, Victoria Harrison, Rose Hawkins, Liu He, Stephen Hellens, Alex Henderson, Sarah Hewitt, Lucy Hildyard, Emma Hobson, Simon Holden, Muriel Holder, Susan Holder, Georgina Hollingsworth, Tessa Homfray, Mervyn Humphreys, Jane Hurst, Ben Hutton, Stuart Ingram, Melita Irving, Lily Islam, Andrew Jackson, Joanna Jarvis, Lucy Jenkins, Diana Johnson, Elizabeth Jones, Dragana Josifova, Shelagh Joss, Beckie Kaemba, Sandra Kazembe, Rosemary Kelsell, Bronwyn Kerr, Helen Kingston, Usha Kini, Esther Kinning, Gail Kirby, Claire Kirk, Emma Kivuva, Alison Kraus, Dhavendra Kumar, V.K Ajith Kumar, Katherine Lachlan, Wayne Lam, Anne Lampe, Caroline Langman, Melissa Lees, Derek Lim, Cheryl Longman, Gordon Lowther, Sally A Lynch, Alex Magee, Eddy Maher, Alison Male, Sahar Mansour, Karen Marks, Katherine Martin, Una Maye, Emma McCann, Vivienne McConnell, Meriel McEntagart, Ruth McGowan, Kirsten McKay, Shane McKee, Dominic J McMullan, Susan McNerlan, Catherine McWilliam, Sarju Mehta, Kay Metcalfe, Anna Middleton, Zosia Miedzybrodzka, Emma Miles, Shehla Mohammed, Tara Montgomery, David Moore, Sian Morgan, Jenny Morton, Hood Mugalaasi, Victoria Murday, Helen Murphy, Swati Naik, Andrea Nemeth, Louise Nevitt, Ruth Newbury-Ecob, Andrew Norman, Rosie O'Shea, Caroline Ogilvie, Kai-Ren Ong, Soo-Mi Park, Michael J Parker, Chirag Patel, Joan Paterson, Stewart Payne, Daniel Perrett, Julie Phipps, Daniela T Pilz, Martin Pollard, Caroline Pottinger, Joanna Poulton, Norman Pratt, Katrina Prescott, Sue Price, Abigail Pridham, Annie Procter, Hellen Purnell, Oliver Quarrell, Nicola Ragge, Raheleh Rahbari, Josh Randall, Julia Rankin, Lucy Raymond, Debbie Rice, Leema Robert, Eileen Roberts, Jonathan Roberts, Paul Roberts, Gillian Roberts, Alison Ross, Elisabeth Rosser, Anand Saggar, Shalaka Samant, Julian Sampson, Richard Sandford, Ajoy Sarkar, Susann Schweiger, Richard Scott, Ingrid Scurr, Ann Selby, Anneke Seller, Cheryl Sequeira, Nora Shannon, Saba Sharif, Charles Shaw-Smith, Emma Shearing, Debbie Shears, Eamonn Sheridan, Ingrid Simonic, Roldan Singzon, Zara Skitt, Audrey Smith, Kath Smith, Sarah Smithson, Linda Sneddon, Miranda Splitt, Miranda Squires, Fiona Stewart, Helen Stewart, Volker Straub, Mohnish Suri, Vivienne Sutton, Ganesh Jawahar Swaminathan, Elizabeth Sweeney, Kate Tatton-Brown, Cat Taylor, Rohan Taylor, Mark Tein, I Karen Temple, Jenny Thomson, Marc Tischkowitz, Susan Tomkins, Audrey Torokwa, Becky Treacy, Claire Turner, Peter Turnpenny, Carolyn Tysoe, Anthony Vandersteen, Vinod Varghese, Pradeep Vasudevan, Parthiban Vijayarangakannan, Julie Vogt, Emma Wakeling, Sarah Wallwark, Jonathon Waters, Astrid Weber, Diana Wellesley, Margo Whiteford, Sara Widaa, Sarah Wilcox, Emily Wilkinson, Denise Williams, Nicola Williams, Louise Wilson, Geoff Woods, Christopher Wragg, Michael Wright, Laura Yates, Michael Yau, Chris Nellaker, Helen V Firth, Caroline F Wright, David R FitzPatrick, Jeffrey C Barrett, Matthew E Hurles
Individuals with severe, undiagnosed developmental disorders (DDs) are enriched for damaging de novo mutations (DNMs) in developmentally important genes. We exome sequenced 4,293 families with individuals with DDs, and meta-analysed these data with published data on 3,287 individuals with similar disorders. We show that the most significant factors influencing the diagnostic yield of de novo mutations are the sex of the affected individual, the relatedness of their parents and the age of both father and mother. We identified 94 genes enriched for damaging de novo mutation at genome-wide significance (P < 7 x 10-7), including 14 genes for which compelling data for causation was previously lacking. We have characterised the phenotypic diversity among these genetic disorders. We demonstrate that, at current cost differentials, exome sequencing has much greater power than genome sequencing for novel gene discovery in genetically heterogeneous disorders. We estimate that 42% of our cohort carry pathogenic DNMs (single nucleotide variants and indels) in coding sequences, with approximately half operating by a loss-of-function mechanism, and the remainder resulting in altered-function (e.g. activating, dominant negative). We established that most haplo insufficient developmental disorders have already been identified, but that many altered-function disorders remain to be discovered. Extrapolating from the DDD cohort to the general population, we estimate that developmental disorders caused by DNMs have an average birth prevalence of 1 in 213 to 1 in 448 (0.22-0.47% of live births), depending on parental age.
6,717 downloads genetics
Jeffrey C Barrett, Joseph Buxbaum, David Cutler, Mark Daly, Bernie Devlin, Jacob Gratten, Matthew E Hurles, Jack A. Kosmicki, Eric S Lander, Daniel G. MacArthur, Benjamin M Neale, Kathryn Roeder, Peter M. Visscher, Naomi R. Wray
Based on targeted sequencing of 208 genes in 11,730 neurodevelopmental disorder cases, Stessman et al. report the identification of 91 genes associated (at a False Discovery Rate [FDR] of 0.1) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), and developmental delay (DD)-including what they characterize as 38 novel genes, not previously reported as connected with these diseases. If true, this would represent a substantial step forward. Unfortunately, each of the two discovery analyses (1. De novo mutation analysis and, 2. a comparison of private mutations with public control data) contain critical statistical flaws. When one accounts for these problems, fewer than half of the genes-and very few, if any, of the novel findings-survive. These errors have implications for how future analyses should be conducted, for understanding the genetic basis of these disorders, and for genomic medicine. We discuss the two main analyses in turn and provide more detailed treatment of the issues in a supplementary technical note.
6,670 downloads genetics
V Anttila, B Bulik-Sullivan, H Finucane, R Walters, J Bras, L Duncan, V Escott-Price, G Falcone, P Gormley, R Malik, N Patsopoulos, S Ripke, Z Wei, D Yu, PH Lee, P Turley, IGAP consortium, IHGC consortium, ILAE Consortium on Complex Epilepsies, IMSGC consortium, IPDGC consortium, METASTROKE and Intracerebral Hemorrhage Studies of the International Stroke Genetics Consortium, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Autism Spectrum Disorders Working Group of The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Bipolar Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Eating Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Major Depressive Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Tourette Syndrome and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, G Breen, C Churchhouse, C Bulik, M Daly, M Dichgans, SV Faraone, R Guerreiro, P Holmans, K Kendler, B Koeleman, CA Mathews, AL Price, JM Scharf, P Sklar, J Williams, N Wood, C Cotsapas, A Palotie, JW Smoller, P Sullivan, J Rosand, A Corvin, BM Neale, on behalf of the Brainstorm consortium
Disorders of the brain exhibit considerable epidemiological comorbidity and frequently share symptoms, provoking debate about the extent of their etiologic overlap. We quantified the genetic sharing of 25 brain disorders based on summary statistics from genome-wide association studies of 215,683 patients and 657,164 controls, and their relationship to 17 phenotypes from 1,191,588 individuals. Psychiatric disorders show substantial sharing of common variant risk, while neurological disorders appear more distinct from one another. We observe limited evidence of sharing between neurological and psychiatric disorders, but do identify robust sharing between disorders and several cognitive measures, as well as disorders and personality types. We also performed extensive simulations to explore how power, diagnostic misclassification and phenotypic heterogeneity affect genetic correlations. These results highlight the importance of common genetic variation as a source of risk for brain disorders and the value of heritability-based methods in understanding their etiology.
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