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Rxivist combines biology preprints from bioRxiv and medRxiv with data from Twitter to help you find the papers being discussed in your field. Currently indexing 212,235 papers from 844,985 authors.

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in category genetic and genomic medicine

1,705 results found. For more information, click each entry to expand.

1: Full genome viral sequences inform patterns of SARS-CoV-2 spread into and within Israel
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Posted 22 May 2020

Full genome viral sequences inform patterns of SARS-CoV-2 spread into and within Israel
12,697 downloads medRxiv genetic and genomic medicine

Danielle Miller, Michael A. Martin, Noam Harel, Talia Kustin, Omer Tirosh, Moran Meir, Nadav Sorek, Shiraz Gefen-Halevi, Sharon Amit, Olesya Vorontsov, Dana Wolf, Avi Peretz, Yonat Shemer-Avni, Diana Roif-Kaminsky, Na'ama Kopelman, Amit Huppert, Katia Koelle, Adi Stern

Full genome sequences are increasingly used to track the geographic spread and transmission dynamics of viral pathogens. Here, with a focus on Israel, we sequenced 212 SARS-CoV-2 sequences and use them to perform a comprehensive analysis to trace the origins and spread of the virus. A phylogenetic analysis including thousands of globally sampled sequences allowed us to infer multiple independent introductions into Israel, followed by local transmission. Returning travelers from the U.S. contributed dramatically more to viral spread relative to their proportion in incoming infected travelers. Using phylodynamic analysis, we estimated that the basic reproduction number of the virus was initially around ~2.0-2.6, dropping by two-thirds following the implementation of social distancing measures. A comparison between reported and model-estimated case numbers indicated high levels of transmission heterogeneity in SARS-CoV-2 spread, with between 1-10% of infected individuals resulting in 80% of secondary infections. Overall, our findings underscore the ability of this virus to efficiently transmit between and within countries, as well as demonstrate the effectiveness of social distancing measures for reducing its spread.

2: ACE2 Expression is Increased in the Lungs of Patients with Comorbidities Associated with Severe COVID-19
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Posted 27 Mar 2020

ACE2 Expression is Increased in the Lungs of Patients with Comorbidities Associated with Severe COVID-19
12,586 downloads medRxiv genetic and genomic medicine

Bruna G.G. Pinto, Antonio E.R. Oliveira, Youvika Singh, Leandro Jimenez, Andre N A. Gonçalves, Rodrigo L.T. Ogava, Rachel Creighton, Jean Pierre Schatzmann Peron, Helder Nakaya

The pandemic caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2) has resulted in several thousand deaths worldwide in just a few months. Patients who died from Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) often had comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, and chronic obstructive lung disease. The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) was identified as a crucial factor that facilitates SARS-CoV2 to bind and enter host cells. To date, no study has assessed the ACE2 expression in the lungs of patients with these diseases. Here, we analyzed over 700 lung transcriptome samples of patients with comorbidities associated with severe COVID-19 and found that ACE2 was highly expressed in these patients, compared to control individuals. This finding suggests that patients with such comorbidities may have higher chances of developing severe COVID-19. We also found other genes, such as RAB1A, that can be important for SARS-CoV-2 infection in the lung. Correlation and network analyses revealed many potential regulators of ACE2 in the human lung, including genes related to histone modifications, such as HAT1, HDAC2, and KDM5B. In fact, epigenetic marks found in ACE2 locus were compatible to with those promoted by KDM5B. Our systems biology approach offers a possible explanation for increase of COVID-19 severity in patients with certain comorbidities.

3: Self-reported symptoms of covid-19 including symptoms most predictive of SARS-CoV-2 infection, are heritable
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Posted 24 Apr 2020

Self-reported symptoms of covid-19 including symptoms most predictive of SARS-CoV-2 infection, are heritable
12,407 downloads medRxiv genetic and genomic medicine

Frances MK Williams, Maxim Freidin, Massimo Mangino, Simon Couvreur, Alessia Visconti, Ruth C E Bowyer, Caroline I. Le Roy, Mario Falchi, Carole H Sudre, Richard Davies, Christopher Hammond, Christina Menni, Claire J Steves, Tim D Spector

Susceptibility to infection such as SARS-CoV-2 may be influenced by host genotype. TwinsUK volunteers (n=2633) completing the C-19 Covid symptom tracker app allowed classical twin studies of covid-19 symptoms including predicted covid-19, a symptom-based algorithm predicting true infection derived in app users tested for SARS-CoV-2. We found heritability for fever = 41 (95% confidence intervals 12-70)%; anosmia 47 (27-67)%; delirium 49 (24-75)%; and predicted covid-19 gave heritability = 50 (29-70)%.

4: Mapping genomic loci prioritises genes and implicates synaptic biology in schizophrenia
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Posted 13 Sep 2020

Mapping genomic loci prioritises genes and implicates synaptic biology in schizophrenia
11,663 downloads medRxiv genetic and genomic medicine

Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Stephan Ripke, James TR Walters, Michael C O'Donovan

Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder whose pathophysiology is largely unknown. It has a heritability of 60-80%, much of which is attributable to common risk alleles, suggesting genome-wide association studies can inform our understanding of aetiology. Here, in 69,369 people with schizophrenia and 236,642 controls, we report common variant associations at 270 distinct loci. Using fine-mapping and functional genomic data, we prioritise 19 genes based on protein-coding or UTR variation, and 130 genes in total as likely to explain these associations. Fine-mapped candidates were enriched for genes associated with rare disruptive coding variants in people with schizophrenia, including the glutamate receptor subunit GRIN2A and transcription factor SP4, and were also enriched for genes implicated by such variants in autism and developmental disorder. Associations were concentrated in genes expressed in CNS neurons, both excitatory and inhibitory, but not other tissues or cell types, and implicated fundamental processes related to neuronal function, particularly synaptic organisation, differentiation and transmission. We identify biological processes of pathophysiological relevance to schizophrenia, show convergence of common and rare variant associations in schizophrenia and neurodevelopmental disorders, and provide a rich resource of priority genes and variants to advance mechanistic studies.

5: ACE2 and TMPRSS2 variants and expression as candidates to sex and country differences in COVID-19 severity in Italy
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Posted 02 Apr 2020

ACE2 and TMPRSS2 variants and expression as candidates to sex and country differences in COVID-19 severity in Italy
11,474 downloads medRxiv genetic and genomic medicine

Rosanna Asselta, Elvezia Maria Paraboschi, Alberto Mantovani, Stefano Duga

BackgroundAs the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) progresses, prognostic markers for early identification of high-risk individuals are an urgent medical need. Italy has the highest rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the highest number of deaths, and the highest mortality rate among large countries. Worldwide, a more severe course of COVID-19 is associated with older age, comorbidities, and male sex. Hence, we searched for possible genetic components of the peculiar severity of COVID-19 among Italians, by looking at expression levels and variants in ACE2 and TMPRSS2 genes, which are crucial for viral infection. MethodsExome and SNP array data from a large Italian cohort representative of the countrys population were used to compare the burden of rare variants and the frequency of polymorphisms with European and East Asian populations. Moreover, we looked into gene expression databases to check for sex-unbalanced expression. ResultsWhile we found no significant evidence that ACE2 is associated with disease severity/sex bias in the Italian population, TMPRSS2 levels and genetic variants proved to be possible candidate disease modulators, contributing to the observed epidemiological data among Italian patients. ConclusionsOur analysis suggests a role for TMPRSS2 variants and expression levels in modulating COVID-19 severity, a hypothesis that fosters a rapid experimental validation on large cohorts of patients with different clinical manifestations.

6: ACE2 variants underlie interindividual variability and susceptibility to COVID-19 in Italian population
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Posted 06 Apr 2020

ACE2 variants underlie interindividual variability and susceptibility to COVID-19 in Italian population
10,931 downloads medRxiv genetic and genomic medicine

Elisa Benetti, Rossella Tita, Ottavia Spiga, Andrea Ciolfi, Giovanni Birolo, Alessandro Bruselles, Gabriella Doddato, Annarita Giliberti, Cterina Marconi, Francesco Musacchia, Tommaso Pippucci, Annalaura Torella, Alfonso Trezza, Floriana Valentino, Mrgherita Baldassarri, Alfredo Brusco, Rosanna Asselta, Bruttini Mirella, Simone Furini, Marco Seri, Vincenzo Nigro, Giuseppe Matullo, Marco Tartaglia, Francesca Mari, Alessandra Renieri, Annamaria Pinto

In December 2019, an initial cluster of unexpected interstitial bilateral pneumonia emerged in Wuhan, Hubei province. A human-to-human transmission was immediately assumed and a previously unrecognized entity, termed coronavirus disease 19 (COVID- 19) due to a novel coronavirus (2019-nCov) was suddenly described. The infection has rapidly spread out all over the world and Italy has been the first European Country experiencing the endemic wave with unexpected clinical severity in comparison with Asian countries. It has recently been shown that 2019-nCov utilizes host receptors namely angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as host receptor and host proteases for cell surface binding and internalization. Thus, a predisposing genetic background can give reason for interindividual disease susceptibility and/or severity. Taking advantage of the Network of Italian Genomes (NIG), here we mined around 7000 exomes from 5 different Centers looking for ACE2 variants. A number of variants with a potential impact on protein stability were identified. Among these, three missense changes, p.Asn720Asp, p.Lys26Arg, p.Gly211Arg (MAF 0.002 to 0.015), which have never been reported in the Eastern Asia population, were predicted to interfere with protein u and stabilization. Rare truncating variants likely interfering with the internalization process and one missense variant, p.Trp69Cys, predicted to interfere with 2019-nCov spike protein binding were also observed. These findings suggest that a predisposing genetic background may contribute to the observed inter-individual clinical variability associated with COVID-19. They allow an evidence-based risk assessment opening up the way to personalized preventive measures and therapeutic options.

7: Mapping the human genetic architecture of COVID-19 by worldwide meta-analysis
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Posted 12 Mar 2021

Mapping the human genetic architecture of COVID-19 by worldwide meta-analysis
9,239 downloads medRxiv genetic and genomic medicine

The COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative, Andrea Ganna

The genetic makeup of an individual contributes to susceptibility and response to viral infection. While environmental, clinical and social factors play a role in exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 disease severity, host genetics may also be important. Identifying host-specific genetic factors indicate biological mechanisms of therapeutic relevance and clarify causal relationships of modifiable environmental risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and outcomes. We formed a global network of researchers to investigate the role of human genetics in SARS-COV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity. We describe the results of three genome-wide association meta-analyses comprising up to 49,562 COVID-19 patients from 46 studies across 19 countries worldwide. We reported 13 genome-wide significant loci that are associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection or severe manifestations of COVID-19. Several of these loci correspond to previously documented associations to lung or autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. They also represent potentially actionable mechanisms in response to infection. We further identified smoking and body mass index as causal risk factors for severe COVID-19. The identification of novel host genetic factors associated with COVID-19, with unprecedented speed, was enabled by prioritization of shared resources and analytical frameworks. This working model of international collaboration provides a blue-print for future genetic discoveries in the event of pandemics or for any complex human disease.

8: Exome sequencing identifies rare coding variants in 10 genes which confer substantial risk for schizophrenia
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Posted 18 Sep 2020

Exome sequencing identifies rare coding variants in 10 genes which confer substantial risk for schizophrenia
8,928 downloads medRxiv genetic and genomic medicine

Tarjinder Singh, Timothy Poterba, David Curtis, Huda Akil, Mariam Al Eissa, Jack D Barchas, Nicholas Bass, Tim B. Bigdeli, Inti Pedroso, Evelyn J Bromet, Peter F Buckley, William E. Bunney, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, William Byerley, Sinéad B Chapman, Wei J. Chen, Claire Churchhouse, Nicholas Craddock, Charles Curtis, Caroline M Cusick, Lynn DeLisi, Sheila Dodge, Michael A Escamilla, Saana Eskelinen, Ayman H Fanous, Stephen V Faraone, Alessia Fiorentino, Laurent Francioli, Stacey B Gabriel, Diane Gage, Sarah A Gagliano Taliun, Andrea Ganna, Giulio Genovese, David C Glahn, Jakob Grove, Mei-Hua Hall, Eija Hamalainen, Henrike O. Heyne, Matti Holi, David Hougaard, Daniel P Howrigan, Hailiang Huang, Hai-Gwo Hwu, Rene S Kahn, Hyun Min Kang, Konrad Karczewski, George Kirov, James A Knowles, Francis S. Lee, Douglas S Lehrer, Francesco Lescai, Dolores Malaspina, Stephen R Marder, Steven A. McCarroll, Helena Medeiros, Lili Milani, Christopher P Morley, Derek W. Morris, Preben Bo Mortensen, Richard M. Myers, Merete Nordentoft, Niamh O'Brien, Ana Maria Olivares, Dost Ongur, Willem Hendrik Ouwehand, Duncan S Palmer, T. Paunio, Digby Quested, Mark H Rapaport, Elliott Rees, Brandi Rollins, F. Kyle Satterstrom, Alan F. Schatzberg, Edward Scolnick, Laura Scott, Sally Sharp, Pamela Sklar, Jordan W Smoller, Janet L. Sobell, Matthew Solomonson, Christine R. Stevens, Jaana Suvisaari, Grace Tiao, Stanley J Watson, Nicholas A Watts, Douglas H Blackwood, Anders Borglum, Bruce M. Cohen, Aiden P Corvin, Tonu Esko, Nelson B. Freimer, Stephen J Glatt, Christina M Hultman, Andrew McQuillin, Aarno Palotie, Carlos Pato, Michele Pato, Ann E Pulver, David St. Clair, Ming T Tsuang, Marquis P. Vawter, James TR Walters, Thomas Werge, Roel A Ophoff, Patrick F Sullivan, Michael J Owen, Michael Boehnke, Michael O'Donovan, Benjamin Neale, Mark Daly

By meta-analyzing the whole-exomes of 24,248 cases and 97,322 controls, we implicate ultra-rare coding variants (URVs) in ten genes as conferring substantial risk for schizophrenia (odds ratios 3 - 50, P < 2.14 x 10^-6), and 32 genes at a FDR < 5%. These genes have the greatest expression in central nervous system neurons and have diverse molecular functions that include the formation, structure, and function of the synapse. The associations of NMDA receptor subunit GRIN2A and AMPA receptor subunit GRIA3 provide support for the dysfunction of the glutamatergic system as a mechanistic hypothesis in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We find significant evidence for an overlap of rare variant risk between schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and severe neurodevelopmental disorders (DD/ID), supporting a neurodevelopmental etiology for schizophrenia. We show that protein-truncating variants in GRIN2A, TRIO, and CACNA1G confer risk for schizophrenia whereas specific missense mutations in these genes confer risk for DD/ID. Nevertheless, few of the strongly associated schizophrenia genes appear to confer risk for DD/ID. We demonstrate that genes prioritized from common variant analyses of schizophrenia are enriched in rare variant risk, suggesting that common and rare genetic risk factors at least partially converge on the same underlying pathogenic biological processes. Even after excluding significantly associated genes, schizophrenia cases still carry a substantial excess of URVs, implying that more schizophrenia risk genes await discovery using this approach.

9: Polygenic background modifies penetrance of monogenic variants conferring risk for coronary artery disease, breast cancer, or colorectal cancer
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Posted 29 Nov 2019

Polygenic background modifies penetrance of monogenic variants conferring risk for coronary artery disease, breast cancer, or colorectal cancer
8,290 downloads medRxiv genetic and genomic medicine

Akl C. Fahed, Minxian Wang, Julian R Homburger, Aniruddh P. Patel, Alexander G. Bick, Cynthia L. Neben, Carmen Lai, Deanna Brockman, Anthony Philippakis, Patrick T. Ellinor, Christopher Cassa, Matthew Lebo, Kenney Ng, Eric S Lander, Alicia Y. Zhou, Sekar Kathiresan, Amit V. Khera

BackgroundGenetic variation can predispose to disease both through (i) monogenic risk variants in specific genes that disrupt a specific physiologic pathway and have a large effect on disease risk and (ii) polygenic risk that involves large numbers of variants of small effect that affect many different pathways. Few studies have explored the interaction between monogenic risk variants and polygenic risk. MethodsWe identified monogenic risk variants and calculated polygenic scores for three diseases, coronary artery disease, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer, in three study populations -- case-control cohorts for coronary artery disease (UK Biobank; N=12,879) and breast cancer (Color Genomics; N=19,264), and an independent cohort of 49,738 additional UK Biobank participants. ResultsIn the coronary artery disease case-control cohort, increased risk for carriers of a monogenic variant ranged from 1.3-fold for those in the lowest polygenic score quintile to 12.6-fold for those in the highest. For breast cancer, increased risk ranged from 2.4 to 6.9-fold across polygenic score quintiles. Among the 49,738 UK Biobank participants who carried a monogenic risk variant, the probability of disease at age 75 years was strongly modified by polygenic risk. Across individuals in the lowest to highest percentiles of polygenic risk, the probability of disease ranged from 17% to 78% for coronary artery disease; 13% to 76% for breast cancer; and 11% to 80% for colon cancer. ConclusionsFor three important genomic conditions, polygenic risk powerfully modifies the risk conferred by monogenic risk variants.

10: Reversal of Epigenetic Age with Diet and Lifestyle in a Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial
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Posted 14 Jul 2020

Reversal of Epigenetic Age with Diet and Lifestyle in a Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial
7,718 downloads medRxiv genetic and genomic medicine

Kara Fitzgerald, Romilly Hodges, Douglas Hanes, Emily Stack, David Cheishvili, Moshe Szyf, Janine Henkel, Melissa Twedt, Despina Giannopoulou, Josette Herdell, Sally Logan, Ryan Bradley

Manipulations to set back biological age and extend lifespan in animal models are well established, and translation to humans has begun. The length of human life makes it impractical to evaluate results by plotting mortality curves, so surrogate markers of age have been suggested and, at present, the best established surrogates are DNA methylation clocks. Herein we report on a randomized, controlled clinical trial designed to be a first step in evaluating the effect of a diet and lifestyle intervention on biological age. Compared to participants in the control group (n=20), participants in the treatment group tested an average 3.23 years younger at the end of the eight-week program according to the Horvath DNAmAge clock (p=0.018). Those in the treatment group (n=18) tested an average 1.96 years younger at the end of the program compared to the same individuals at the beginning with a strong trend towards significance (p=0.066 for within group change). This is the first such trial to demonstrate a potential reversal of biological age. In this study, the intervention was confined to diet and lifestyle changes previously identified as safe to use. The prescribed program included multiple components with documented mechanistic activity on epigenetic pathways, including moderate exercise, breathing exercises for stress, and a diet rich in methyl donor nutrients and polyphenols.

11: Leveraging polygenic enrichments of gene features to predict genes underlying complex traits and diseases
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Posted 10 Sep 2020

Leveraging polygenic enrichments of gene features to predict genes underlying complex traits and diseases
7,294 downloads medRxiv genetic and genomic medicine

Elle M. Weeks, Jacob C Ulirsch, Nathan Y Cheng, Brian L Trippe, Rebecca S. Fine, Jenkai Miao, Tejal A Patwardhan, Masahiro Kanai, Joseph Nasser, Charles P Fulco, Katherine C Tashman, Francois Aguet, Taibo Li, Jose Ordovas-Montanes, Christopher S. Smillie, Moshe Biton, Alex K. Shalek, Ashwin N. Ananthakrishnan, Ramnik J Xavier, Aviv Regev, Rajat M Gupta, Kasper Lage, Kristen G Ardlie, Joel N. Hirschhorn, Eric S Lander, Jesse Engreitz, Hilary K Finucane

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are a valuable tool for understanding the biology of complex traits, but the associations found rarely point directly to causal genes. Here, we introduce a new method to identify the causal genes by integrating GWAS summary statistics with gene expression, biological pathway, and predicted protein-protein interaction data. We further propose an approach that effectively leverages both polygenic and locus-specific genetic signals by combining results across multiple gene prioritization methods, increasing confidence in prioritized genes. Using a large set of gold standard genes to evaluate our approach, we prioritize 8,402 unique gene-trait pairs with greater than 75% estimated precision across 113 complex traits and diseases, including known genes such as SORT1 for LDL cholesterol, SMIM1 for red blood cell count, and DRD2 for schizophrenia, as well as novel genes such as TTC39B for cholelithiasis. Our results demonstrate that a polygenic approach is a powerful tool for gene prioritization and, in combination with locus-specific signal, improves upon existing methods.

12: Systematic single-variant and gene-based association testing of thousands of phenotypes in 426,370 UK Biobank exomes
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Posted 23 Jun 2021

Systematic single-variant and gene-based association testing of thousands of phenotypes in 426,370 UK Biobank exomes
6,394 downloads medRxiv genetic and genomic medicine

Konrad Karczewski, Matthew Solomonson, Katherine R Chao, Julia K Goodrich, Grace Tiao, Wenhan Lu, Bridget Riley-Gillis, Ellen A Tsai, Hye In Kim, Xiuwen Zheng, Fedik Rahimov, Sahar Esmaeeli, A Jason Grundstad, Mark Reppell, Jeff Waring, Howard Jacob, David Sexton, Paola G Bronson, Xing Chen, Xinli Hu, Jacqueline I Goldstein, Daniel King, Chris Vittal, Timothy Poterba, Duncan S Palmer, Claire Churchhouse, Daniel P Howrigan, Wei Zhou, Nicholas A Watts, Kevin Nguyen, Huy Nguyen, Cara Mason, Christopher Farnham, Charlotte Tolonen, Laura D Gauthier, Namrata Gupta, Daniel G. MacArthur, Heidi L Rehm, Cotton Seed, Anthony Philippakis, Mark Daly, J Wade Davis, Heiko Runz, Melissa R. Miller, Benjamin Neale

Genome-wide association studies have successfully discovered thousands of common variants associated with human diseases and traits, but the landscape of rare variation in human disease has not been explored at scale. Exome sequencing studies of population biobanks provide an opportunity to systematically evaluate the impact of rare coding variation across a wide range of phenotypes to discover genes and allelic series relevant to human health and disease. Here, we present results from systematic association analyses of 4,529 phenotypes using single-variant and gene tests of 426,370 individuals in the UK Biobank with exome sequence data. We find that the discovery of genetic associations is tightly linked to frequency as well as correlated with metrics of deleteriousness and natural selection. We highlight biological findings elucidated by these data and release the dataset as a public resource alongside the Genebass browser for rapidly exploring rare variant association results.

13: Analysis of Genetic Host Response Risk Factors in Severe COVID-19 Patients
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Posted 19 Jun 2020

Analysis of Genetic Host Response Risk Factors in Severe COVID-19 Patients
5,964 downloads medRxiv genetic and genomic medicine

Krystyna Taylor, Sayoni Das, Matthew Pearson, James Kozubek, Marcin Pawlowski, Claus Erik Jensen, Zbigniew Skowron, Gert Lykke Møller, Mark Strivens, Steve Gardner

BACKGROUND Epidemiological studies indicate that as many as 20% of individuals who test positive for COVID-19 develop severe symptoms that can require hospitalization. These symptoms include low platelet count, severe hypoxia, increased inflammatory cytokines and reduced glomerular filtration rate. Additionally, severe COVID-19 is associated with several chronic co-morbidities, including cardiovascular disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The identification of genetic risk factors that impact differential host responses to SARS-CoV-2, resulting in the development of severe COVID-19, is important in gaining greater understanding into the biological mechanisms underpinning life-threatening responses to the virus. These insights could be used in the identification of high-risk individuals and for the development of treatment strategies for these patients. METHODS As of June 6, 2020, there were 976 patients who tested positive for COVID-19 and were hospitalized, indicating they had a severe response to SARS-CoV-2. There were however too few patients with a mild form of COVID-19 to use this cohort as our control population. Instead we used similar control criteria to our previous study looking at shared genetic risk factors between severe COVID-19 and sepsis, selecting controls who had not developed sepsis despite having maximum co-morbidity risk and exposure to sepsis-causing pathogens. RESULTS Using a combinatorial (high-order epistasis) analysis approach, we identified 68 protein-coding genes that were highly associated with severe COVID-19. At the time of analysis, nine of these genes have been linked to differential response to SARS-CoV-2. We also found many novel targets that are involved in key biological pathways associated with the development of severe COVID-19, including production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, endothelial cell dysfunction, lipid droplets, neurodegeneration and viral susceptibility factors. CONCLUSION The variants we found in genes relating to immune response pathways and cytokine production cascades, were in equal proportions across all severe COVID-19 patients, regardless of their co-morbidities. This suggests that such variants are not associated with any specific co-morbidity, but are common amongst patients who develop severe COVID-19. Among the 68 severe COVID-19 risk-associated genes, we found several druggable protein targets and pathways. Nine are targeted by drugs that have reached at least Phase I clinical trials, and a further eight have active chemical starting points for novel drug development. Several of these targets were particularly enriched in specific co-morbidities, providing insights into shared pathological mechanisms underlying both the development of severe COVID-19, ARDS and these predisposing co-morbidities. We can use these insights to identify patients who are at greatest risk of contracting severe COVID-19 and develop targeted therapeutic strategies for them, with the aim of improving disease burden and survival rates.

14: Japan COVID-19 Task Force: a nation-wide consortium to elucidate host genetics of COVID-19 pandemic in Japan
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Posted 18 May 2021

Japan COVID-19 Task Force: a nation-wide consortium to elucidate host genetics of COVID-19 pandemic in Japan
5,230 downloads medRxiv genetic and genomic medicine

Ho Namkoong, Ryuya Edahiro, Koichi Fukunaga, Yuya Shirai, Kyuto Sonehara, Hiromu Tanaka, Ho Lee, Takanori Hasegawa, Masahiro Kanai, Tatsuhiko Naito, Kenichi Yamamoto, Ryunosuke Saiki, Takayoshi Hyugaji, Eigo Shimizu, Kotoe Katayama, Kazuhisa Takahashi, Norihiro Harada, Toshio Naito, Makoto Hiki, Yasushi Matsushita, Haruhi Takagi, Ryousuke Aoki, Ai Nakamura, Sonoko Harada, Hitoshi Sasano, Hiroki Kabata, Katsunori Masaki, Hirofumi Kamata, Shinnosuke Ikemura, Shotaro Chubachi, Satoshi Okamori, Hideki Terai, Atsuho Morita, Takanori Asakura, Junichi Sasaki, Hiroshi Morisaki, Yoshifumi Uwamino, Kosaku Nanki, Yohei Mikami, Sho Uchida, Shunsuke Uno, Rino Ishihara, Yuta Matsubara, Tomoyasu Nishimura, Takanori Ogawa, Takashi Ishiguro, Taisuke Isono, Shun Shibata, Yuma Matsui, Chiaki Hosoda, Kenji Takano, Takashi Nishida, Yoichi Kobayashi, Yotaro Takaku, Noboru Takayanagi, Soichiro Ueda, Ai Tada, Masayoshi Miyawaki, Masaomi Yamamoto, Eriko Yoshida, Reina Hayashi, Tomoki Nagasaka, Sawako Arai, Yutaro Kaneko, Kana Sasaki, Etsuko Tagaya, Masatoshi Kawana, Ken Arimura, Kunihiko Takahashi, Tatsuhiko Anzai, Satoshi Ito, Akifumi Endo, Yuji Uchimura, Yasunari Miyazaki, Takayuki Honda, Tomoya Tateishi, Shuji Tohda, Naoya Ichimura, Kazunari Sonobe, Chihiro Sassa, Jun Nakajima, Yasushi Nakano, Yukiko Nakajima, Ryusuke Anan, Ryosuke Arai, Yuko Kurihara, Yuko Harada, Kazumi Nishio, Tetsuya Ueda, Masanori Azuma, Ryuichi Saito, Toshikatsu Sado, Yoshimune Miyazaki, Ryuichi Sato, Yuki Haruta, Tadao Nagasaki, Yoshinori Yasui, Yoshinori Hasegawa, Yoshikazu Mutoh, Tomonori Sato, Reoto Takei, Satoshi Hagimoto, Yoichiro Noguchi, Yasuhiko Yamano, Hajime Sasano, Sho Ota, Yasushi Nakamori, Kazuhisa Yoshiya, Fukuki Saito, Tomoyuki Yoshihara, Daiki Wada, Hiromu Iwamura, Syuji Kanayama, Shuhei Maruyama, Takashi Yoshiyama, Ken Ohta, Hiroyuki Kokuto, Hideo Ogata, Yoshiaki Tanaka, Kenichi Arakawa, Masafumi Shimoda, Takeshi Osawa, Hiroki Tateno, Isano Hase, Shuichi Yoshida, Shoji Suzuki, Miki Kawada, Hirohisa Horinouchi, Fumitake Saito, Keiko Mitamura, Masao Hagihara, Junichi Ochi, Tomoyuki Uchida, Rie Baba, Daisuke Arai, Takayuki Ogura, Hidenori Takahashi, Shigehiro Hagiwara, Genta Nagao, Shunichiro Konishi, Ichiro Nakachi, Koji Murakami, Mitsuhiro Yamada, Hisatoshi Sugiura, Hirohito Sano, Shuichiro Matsumoto, Nozomu Kimura, Yoshinao Ono, Hiroaki Baba, Yusuke Suzuki, Sohei Nakayama, Keita Masuzawa, Shinichi Namba, Ken Suzuki, Nobuyuki Hizawa, Takayuki Shiroyama, Satoru Miyawaki, Yusuke Kawamura, Akiyoshi Nakayama, Hirotaka Matsuo, Yuichi Maeda, Takuro Nii, Yoshimi Noda, Takayuki Niitsu, Yuichi Adachi, Takatoshi Enomoto, Saori Amiya, Reina Hara, Toshihiro Kishikawa, Shuhei Yamada, Shuhei Kawabata, Noriyuki Kijima, Masatoshi Takagaki, Noa Sasa, Yuya Ueno, Motoyuki Suzuki, Norihiko Takemoto, Hirotaka Eguchi, Takahito Fukusumi, Takao Imai, Munehisa Fukushima, Haruhiko Kishima, Hidenori Inohara, Kazunori Tomono, Kazuto Kato, Meiko Takahashi, Fumihiko Matsuda, Haruhiko Hirata, Yoshito Takeda, Hidefumi Koh, Tadashi Manabe, Yohei Funatsu, Fumimaro Ito, Takahiro Fukui, Keisuke Shinozuka, Sumiko Kohashi, Masatoshi Miyazaki, Tomohisa Shoko, Mitsuaki Kojima, Tomohiro Adachi, Motonao Ishikawa, Kenichiro Takahashi, Takashi Inoue, Toshiyuki Hirano, Keigo Kobayashi, Hatsuyo Takaoka, Kazuyoshi Watanabe, Naoki Miyazawa, Yasuhiro Kimura, Reiko Sado, Hideyasu Sugimoto, Akane Kamiya, Naota Kuwahara, Akiko Fujiwara, Tomohiro Matsunaga, Yoko Sato, Takenori Okada, Yoshihiro Hirai, Hidetoshi Kawashima, Atsuya Narita, Kazuki Niwa, Yoshiyuki Sekikawa, Koichi Nishi, Masaru Nishitsuji, Mayuko Tani, Junya Suzuki, Hiroki Nakatsumi, Takashi Ogura, Hideya Kitamura, Eri Hagiwara, Kota Murohashi, Hiroko Okabayashi, Takao Mochimaru, Shigenari Nukaga, Ryosuke Satomi, Yoshitaka Oyamada, Nobuaki Mori, Tomoya Baba, Yasutaka Fukui, Mitsuru Odate, Shuko Mashimo, Yasushi Makino, Kazuma Yagi, Mizuha Hashiguchi, Junko Kagyo, Tetsuya Shiomi, Satoshi Fuke, Hiroshi Saito, Tomoya Tsuchida, Shigeki Fujitani, Mumon Takita, Daiki Morikawa, Toru Yoshida, Takehiro Izumo, Minoru Inomata, Naoyuki Kuse, Nobuyasu Awano, Mari Tone, Akihiro Ito, Yoshihiko Nakamura, Kota Hoshino, Junichi Maruyama, Hiroyasu Ishikura, Tohru Takata, Toshio Odani, Masaru Amishima, Takeshi Hattori, Yasuo Shichinohe, Takashi Kagaya, Toshiyuki Kita, Kazuhide Ohta, Satoru Sakagami, Kiyoshi Koshida, Kentaro Hayashi, Tetsuo Shimizu, Yutaka Kozu, Hisato Hiranuma, Yasuhiro Gon, Namiki Izumi, Kaoru Nagata, Ken Ueda, Reiko Taki, Satoko Hanada, Kodai Kawamura, Kazuya Ichikado, Kenta Nishiyama, Hiroyuki Muranaka, Kazunori Nakamura, Naozumi Hashimoto, Keiko Wakahara, Sakamoto Koji, Norihito Omote, Akira Ando, Nobuhiro Kodama, Yasunari Kaneyama, Shunsuke Maeda, Takashige Kuraki, Takemasa Matsumoto, Koutaro Yokote, Taka-Aki Nakada, Ryuzo Abe, Taku Oshima, Tadanaga Shimada, Masahiro Harada, Takeshi Takahashi, Hiroshi Ono, Toshihiro Sakurai, Takayuki Shibusawa, Yoshifumi Kimizuka, Akihiko Kawana, Tomoya Sano, Chie Watanabe, Ryohei Suematsu, Hisako Sageshima, Ayumi Yoshifuji, Kazuto Ito, Saeko Takahashi, Kota Ishioka, Morio Nakamura, Makoto Masuda, Aya Wakabayashi, Hiroki Watanabe, Suguru Ueda, Masanori Nishikawa, Yusuke Chihara, Mayumi Takeuchi, Keisuke Onoi, Jun Shinozuka, Atsushi Sueyoshi, Yoji Nagasaki, Masaki Okamoto, Sayoko Ishihara, Masatoshi Shimo, Yoshihisa Tokunaga, Yu Kusaka, Takehiko Ohba, Susumu Isogai, Aki Ogawa, Takuya Inoue, Satoru Fukuyama, Yoshihiro Eriguchi, Akiko Yonekawa, Keiko Kan-o, Koichiro Matsumoto, Kensuke Kanaoka, Shoichi Ihara, Kiyoshi Komuta, Yoshiaki Inoue, Shigeru Chiba, Kunihiro Yamagata, Yuji Hiramatsu, Hirayasu Kai, Koichiro Asano, Tsuyoshi Oguma, Yoko Ito, Satoru Hashimoto, Masaki Yamasaki, Yu Kasamatsu, Yuko Komase, Naoya Hida, Takahiro Tsuburai, Baku Oyama, Minoru Takada, Hidenori Kanda, Yuichiro Kitagawa, Tetsuya Fukuta, Takahito Miyake, Shozo Yoshida, Shinji Ogura, Shinji Abe, Yuta Kono, Yuki Togashi, Hiroyuki Takoi, Ryota Kikuchi, Shinichi Ogawa, Tomouki Ogata, Shoichiro Ishihara, Arihiko Kanehiro, Shinji Ozaki, Yasuko Fuchimo, Sae Wada, Nobukazu Fujimoto, Kei Nishiyama, Mariko Terashima, Satoru Beppu, Kosuke Yoshida, Osamu Narumoto, Hideaki Nagai, Nobuharu Ooshima, Mitsuru Motegi, Akira Umeda, Kazuya Miyagawa, Hisato Shimada, Mayu Endo, Yoshiyuki Ohira, Masafumi Watanabe, Sumito Inoue, Akira Igarashi, Masamichi Sato, Hironori Sagara, Akihiko Tanaka, Shin Ohta, Tomoyuki Kimura, Yoko Shibata, Yoshinori Tanino, Takefumi Nikaido, Hiroyuki Minemura, Yuki Sato, Yuichiro Yamada, Takuya Hashino, Masato Shinoki, Hajime Iwagoe, Hiroshi Takahashi, Kazuhiko Fujii, Hiroto Kishi, Masayuki Kanai, Tomonori Imamura, Tatsuya Yamashita, Masakiyo Yatomi, Toshitaka Maeno, Shinichi Hayashi, Mai Takahashi, Mizuki Kuramochi, Isamu Kamimaki, Yoshiteru Tominaga, Tomoo Ishii, Mitsuyoshi Utsugi, Akihiro Ono, Toru Tanaka, Takeru Kashiwada, Kazue Fujita, Yoshinobu Saito, Masahiro Seike, Yosuke Omae, Yasuhito Nannya, Takafumi Ueno, Tomomi Takano, Kazuhiko Katayama, Masumi Ai, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Toshiro Sato, Naoki Hasegawa, Katsushi Tokunaga, Makoto Ishii, Ryuji Koike, Yuko Kitagawa, Akinori Kimura, Seiya Imoto, Satoru Miyano, Seishi Ogawa, Takanori Kanai, Yukinori Okada

To elucidate the host genetic loci affecting severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection, or Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is an emerging issue in the face of the current devastating pandemic. Here, we report a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of COVID-19 in a Japanese population led by the Japan COVID-19 Task Force, as one of the initial discovery GWAS studies performed on a non-European population. Enrolling a total of 2,393 cases and 3,289 controls, we not only replicated previously reported COVID-19 risk variants (e.g., LZTFL1, FOXP4, ABO, and IFNAR2), but also found a variant on 5p35 (rs60200309-A at DOCK2) that was significantly associated with severe COVID-19 in younger (<65 years of age) patients with a genome-wide significant p-value of 1.2 x 10-8 (odds ratio = 2.01, 95% confidence interval = 1.58-2.55). This risk allele was prevalent in East Asians, including Japanese (minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.097), but rarely found in Europeans. Cross-population Mendelian randomization analysis made a causal inference of a number of complex human traits on COVID-19. In particular, obesity had a significant impact on severe COVID-19. The presence of the population-specific risk allele underscores the need of non-European studies of COVID-19 host genetics.

15: Genomic characterization of a novel SARS-CoV-2 lineage from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
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Posted 26 Dec 2020

Genomic characterization of a novel SARS-CoV-2 lineage from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
5,126 downloads medRxiv genetic and genomic medicine

Carolina Moreira Voloch, Ronaldo da Silva Francisco Junior, Luiz G P de Almeida, Cynthia C Cardoso, Otavio Brustolini, Alexandra L Gerber, Ana Paula de C Guimaraes, Diana Mariani, Raissa Mirella da Costa, Orlando C. Ferreira, Covid19-UFRJ Workgroup, LNCC-Workgroup, Adriana Cony Cavalcanti, Thiago Silva Frauches, Claudia Maria Braga de Mello, Rafael M. Galliez, Debora Souza Faffe, Terezinha M. P. P. Castineiras, AMILCAR TANURI, Ana Tereza Ribeiro de Vasconcelos

In this study, we report the sequencing of 180 new viral genomes obtained from different municipalities of the state of Rio de Janeiro from April to December 2020. We identified a novel lineage of SARS-CoV-2, originated from B.1.1.28, distinguished by five single-nucleotide variants (SNVs): C100U, C28253U, G28628U, G28975U, and C29754U. The SNV G23012A (E484K), in the receptor-binding domain of Spike protein, was widely spread across the samples. This mutation was previously associated with escape from neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. This novel lineage emerged in late July being first detected by us in late October and still mainly restricted to the capital of the state. However, as observed for other strains it can be rapidly spread in the state. The significant increase in the frequency of this lineage raises concerns about public health management and continuous need for genomic surveillance during the second wave of infections. Article Summary LineWe identified a novel circulating lineage of SARS-CoV-2 in the state of Rio de Janeiro Brazil originated from B.1.1.28 lineage.

16: Genome-wide analysis in 756,646 individuals provides first genetic evidence that ACE2 expression influences COVID-19 risk and yields genetic risk scores predictive of severe disease
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Posted 16 Dec 2020

Genome-wide analysis in 756,646 individuals provides first genetic evidence that ACE2 expression influences COVID-19 risk and yields genetic risk scores predictive of severe disease
4,816 downloads medRxiv genetic and genomic medicine

Julie E. Horowitz, Jack A. Kosmicki, Amy Damask, Deepika Sharma, Genevieve H. L. Roberts, Anne E. Justice, Nilanjana Banerjee, Marie V. Coignet, Ashish Yadav, Joseph B Leader, Anthony Marcketta, Danny S. Park, Rouel Lanche, Evan Maxwell, Spencer C. Knight, Xiaodong Bai, Harenda Guturu, Dylan Sun, Asher Baltzell, Fabricio S. P. Kury, Joshua D Backman, Ahna R. Girshick, Colm O'Dushlaine, Shannon R. McCurdy, Raghavendran Partha, Adam J Mansfield, David A Turissini, Alexander H Li, Miao Zhang, Joelle Mbatchou, Kyoko L Watanabe, Lauren Gurski, Shane E McCarthy, Hyun Min Kang, Lee Dobbyn, Eli Stahl, Anurag Verma, Giorgio Sirugo, Regeneron Genetics Center, Marylyn D. Ritchie, Marcus Jones, Suganthi Balasubramanian, Katherine Siminovitch, William J. Salerno, Alan R Shuldiner, Daniel J Rader, Tooraj Mirshahi, Adam E Locke, Jonathan Marchini, John D Overton, David J Carey, Lukas Habegger, Michael N Cantor, Kristin A. Rand, Eurie L. Hong, Jeffrey G. Reid, Catherine A Ball, Aris Baras, Goncalo R. Abecasis, Manuel A. Ferreira

SARS-CoV-2 enters host cells by binding angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Through a genome-wide association study, we show that a rare variant (MAF = 0.3%, odds ratio 0.60, P=4.5x10-13) that down-regulates ACE2 expression reduces risk of COVID-19 disease, providing human genetics support for the hypothesis that ACE2 levels influence COVID-19 risk. Further, we show that common genetic variants define a risk score that predicts severe disease among COVID-19 cases.

17: Improving Polygenic Prediction in Ancestrally Diverse Populations
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Posted 02 Jan 2021

Improving Polygenic Prediction in Ancestrally Diverse Populations
4,362 downloads medRxiv genetic and genomic medicine

Yunfeng Ruan, Yen-Feng Lin, Yen-Chen Feng, Chia-Yen Chen, Max Lam, Zhenglin Guo, Stanley Global Asia Initiatives, Lin He, Akira Sawa, Alicia R. Martin, Shengying Qin, Hailiang Huang, Tian Ge

Polygenic risk scores (PRS) have attenuated cross-population predictive performance. As existing genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were predominantly conducted in individuals of European descent, the limited transferability of PRS reduces its clinical value in non-European populations and may exacerbate healthcare disparities. Recent efforts to level ancestry imbalance in genomic research have expanded the scale of non-European GWAS, although most of them remain under-powered. Here we present a novel PRS construction method, PRS-CSx, which improves cross-population polygenic prediction by integrating GWAS summary statistics from multiple populations. PRS-CSx couples genetic effects across populations via a shared continuous shrinkage prior, enabling more accurate effect size estimation by sharing information between summary statistics and leveraging linkage disequilibrium (LD) diversity across discovery samples, while inheriting computational efficiency and robustness from PRS-CS. We show that PRS-CSx outperforms alternative methods across traits with a wide range of genetic architectures, cross-population genetic overlaps and discovery GWAS sample sizes in simulations, and improves the prediction of quantitative traits and schizophrenia risk in non-European populations.

18: The missing link between genetic association and regulatory function
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Posted 11 Jun 2021

The missing link between genetic association and regulatory function
4,344 downloads medRxiv genetic and genomic medicine

Noah James Connally, Sumaiya Nazeen, Daniel Lee, Huwenbo Shi, John Stamatoyannopoulos, Sung Chun, Chris Cotsapas, Christopher Cassa, Shamil Sunyaev

The genetic basis of most traits is highly polygenic and dominated by non-coding alleles. It is widely assumed that such alleles exert small regulatory effects on the expression of cis-linked genes. However, despite the availability of gene expression and epigenomic data sets, few variant-to-gene links have emerged. It is unclear whether these sparse results are due to limitations in available data and methods, or to deficiencies in the underlying assumed model. To better distinguish between these possibilities, we identified 220 gene-trait pairs in which protein-coding variants influence a complex trait or its Mendelian cognate. Despite the presence of expression quantitative trait loci near most GWAS associations, by applying a gene-based approach we found limited evidence that the baseline expression of trait-related genes explains GWAS associations, whether using colocalization methods (8% of genes implicated), transcription-wide association (2% of genes implicated), or a combination of regulatory annotations and distance (4% of genes implicated). These results contradict the hypothesis that most complex trait-associated variants coincide with homeostatic eQTLs, suggesting that better models are needed. The field must confront this deficit, and pursue this "missing regulation."

19: A systematic framework for assessing the clinical impact of polygenic risk scores
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Posted 08 Apr 2020

A systematic framework for assessing the clinical impact of polygenic risk scores
4,217 downloads medRxiv genetic and genomic medicine

Scott Kulm, Andrew Marderstein, Jason Mezey, Olivier Elemento

Risk prediction models provide empirical recommendations that ultimately aim to deliver optimal patient outcomes. Genetic information, in the form of a polygenic risk score (PRS), may be included in these models to significantly increase their accuracy. Several analyses of PRS accuracy have been completed, nearly all focus on only a few diseases and report limited statistics. This narrow approach has limited our ability to assess as a whole whether PRSs can provide actionable disease predictions. This investigation aims to address this uncertainty by comprehensively analyzing 23 diseases within the UK Biobank. Our results show that including the PRS to a base model containing age, sex and the top ten genetic principal components significantly improves prediction accuracy, as measured by ROC curves, in a majority 21 of 23 diseases and reclassifies on average 68% of the individuals in the top 5% risk group. For heart failure, breast cancer, prostate cancer and gout, decision curve analyses using the 5% risk threshold determined that including the PRS in the base model would correctly identity at least 60 more individuals who develop the disease for every 1000 individuals screened, without making any incorrect predictions. Analyses that included disease-specific risk factors, such as Body-Mass Index, and consider time of disease onset found similar PRS benefits. The improved prediction accuracy was translated to 10 instances in which medications/supplements and 94 instances in which lifestyle modifications lead to significantly greater reduction in disease risk for individuals in the top PRS quintile compared to the bottom PRS quintile. Finally we provide guidance for tailored, future PRS generation by comprehensively ranking methods that generate PRS weights and identifying genome wide association study characteristics that influence PRS predictions. The unification of significantly enhanced disease predictions, novel risk mitigation opportunities and improved methodological clarity indicate that PRSs carry far greater clinical impact than previously known.

20: Rapid, accurate, nucleobase detection using FnCas9
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Posted 14 Sep 2020

Rapid, accurate, nucleobase detection using FnCas9
4,008 downloads medRxiv genetic and genomic medicine

Mohd. Azhar, Rhythm Phutela, Manoj Kumar, Asgar Hussain Ansari, Riya Rauthan, Sneha Gulati, Namrata Sharma, Dipanjali Sinha, Saumya Sharma, Sunaina Singh, Sundaram Acharya, Deepanjan Paul, Poorti Kathpalia, Meghali Aich, Paras Sehgal, Gyan Ranjan, Rahul C Bhoyar, Indian CoV2 Genomics &amp; Genetic Epidemiology (IndiCovGEN) Consortium, Khushboo Singhal, Harsha Lad, Pradeep Kumar Patra, Govind Makharia, Giriraj R Chandak, Bala Pesala, Debojyoti Chakraborty, Souvik Maiti

Rapid detection of pathogenic sequences or variants in DNA and RNA through a point-of-care diagnostic approach is valuable for accelerated clinical prognosis as has been witnessed during the recent COVID-19 outbreak. Traditional methods relying on qPCR or sequencing are difficult to implement in settings with limited resources necessitating the development of accurate alternative testing strategies that perform robustly. Here, we present FnCas9 Editor Linked Uniform Detection Assay (FELUDA) that employs a direct Cas9 based enzymatic readout for detecting nucleotide sequences and identifying nucleobase identity without the requirement of trans-cleavage activity of reporter molecules. We demonstrate that FELUDA is 100% accurate in detecting single nucleotide variants (SNVs) including heterozygous carriers of a mutation and present a simple design strategy in the form of a web-tool, JATAYU, for its implementation. FELUDA is semi quantitative, can be adapted to multiple signal detection platforms and can be quickly designed and deployed for versatile applications such as infectious disease outbreaks like COVID-19. Using a lateral flow readout within 1h, FELUDA shows 100% sensitivity and 97% specificity across all range of viral loads in clinical samples. In combination with RT-RPA and a smartphone application True Outcome Predicted via Strip Evaluation (TOPSE), we present a prototype for FELUDA for CoV-2 detection at home.

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