Most downloaded biology preprints, all time
in category emergency medicine
151 results found. For more information, click each entry to expand.
164 downloads medRxiv emergency medicine
Background The investigation of suspected subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) presents a diagnostic dilemma. The limited sensitivity of a negative CT brain scan has historically mandated hospital admission and a lumbar puncture to look for evidence of blood in the cerebrospinal fluid. However, emerging evidence has suggested the sensitivity of clinical decision rules and modern CT imaging protocols within early onset of symptoms, may be sufficient to exclude the diagnosis. Methods A prospective, multi-centre, observational study of consecutive adult patients with acute severe non-traumatic headache presenting to emergency departments. We plan to recruit 9000 patients from over a hundred sites across the UK. The primary outcome is adjudicated SAH as defined by neuroimaging or cerebrospinal fluid findings consistent with the diagnosis. Data will be collected on clinical history, examination findings, phlebotomy and imaging results. All participants will be followed for 28-days to identify SAH and other clinically relevant outcomes using case note review, and later Hospital Episode Statistics. A proportionate opt-out model of consent will be used to maximise patient recruitment and study generalisability. Discussion Whilst there is increasing evidence that early neuroimaging strategies for the diagnosis of SAH are very sensitive, there have been no large studies to confirm this in the UK population. Furthermore, the test characteristics of CT brain beyond 6 hours from onset are not well understood and there is limited biological plausibility for this defined time cutpoint. Finally, the performance of the Ottawa clinical decision rule has shown promise in the Canadian population. However, its performance in the UK has not been studied and there are concerns that due to the low specificity it may result in increased, rather than decreased rate of investigations. This study will therefore aim to assess the test characteristics of both a CT brain up to 24h from presentation and the Ottawa SAH clinical decision rule.
151 downloads medRxiv emergency medicine
Aim: To estimate the incidence of in hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in COVID 19 patients, as well as to compare the incidence and outcomes of IHCA in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) versus non ICU patients with COVID 19. Methods: We systematically reviewed the PubMed, Scopus and clinicaltrials.gov databases to identify relevant studies. Results: Eleven studies were included in our study. The pooled prevalence/incidence, pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) were calculated, as appropriate. The quality of the included studies was assessed using appropriate tools. The pooled incidence of IHCA in COVID 19 patients was 7% [95% CI: 4, 11%; P < 0.0001] and 44% [95% CI: 30, 58%; P < 0.0001] achieved ROSC. Of those that survived, 58% [95% CI: 42, 74%; P < 0.0001] had a good neurological outcome (Cerebral Performance Category 1 or 2) and the mortality at the last follow up was 59% [95% CI: 37, 81%; P < 0.0001]. A statistically significant higher percentage of ROSC [OR (95% CI): 5.088 (2.852, 9.079); P < 0.0001] was found among ICU patients versus those in the general wards. Conclusion: The incidence of IHCA amongst hospitalized COVID 19 patients is 7%, with 44% of them achieving ROSC. Patients in the ICU were more likely to achieve ROSC than those in the general wards, however the mortality did not differ.
149 downloads medRxiv emergency medicine
Nicola Ughi, Antonella ADINOLFI, Michel CHEVALLARD, Laura BELLOLI, Michele SENATORE, Alessandro TOSCANO, Andrea BELLONE, Cristina GIANNATTASIO, Paolo TARSIA, Massimo Puoti, Francesco SCAGLIONE, Fabrizio COLOMBO, Michaela BERTUZZI, Giuseppe BETTONI, Davide FERRAZZI, Alessandro MALOBERTI, Armanda DICUONZO, Francesca DEL GAUDIO, Claudio ROSSETTI, Oscar Massimiliano EPIS, Niguarda COVID group
Background: An urgent need exists for an early detection of cases with a high-risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, particularly in high-flow and -risk settings, such as emergency departments (EDs). The aim of this work is to develop and validate a predictive model for the evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 infection risk, with the rationale of using this tool to manage ED patients. Methods: A retrospective study was performed by cross-sectionally reviewing the electronical case records of patients admitted to Niguarda Hospital or referred to its ED in the period 15 March to 24 April 2020. Derivation sample was composed of non-random inpatients hospitalized on 24 April and admitted before 22 April 2020. Validation sample was composed of consecutive patients who visited the ED between 15 and 25 March 2020. The association between the dichotomic outcome and each predictor was explored by univariate analysis with logistic regression models. Results: A total of 113 patients in the derivation sample and 419 in the validation sample were analyzed. History of fever, elder age and low oxygen saturation showed to be significant predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The neutrophil count improves the discriminative ability of the model, even if its calibration and usefulness in terms of diagnosis is unclear. Conclusion: The discriminatory ability of the identified models makes the overall performance suboptimal; their implementation to calculate the individual risk of infection should not be used without additional investigations. However, they could be useful to evaluate the spatial allocation of patients while awaiting the result of the nasopharyngeal swab.
139 downloads medRxiv emergency medicine
Carl Marincowitz, Tony Stone, Peter Bath, Richard Richard Campbell, Janette Turner, Madina Hussein, Richard Pilbery, Benjamin Thomas, Laura Sutton, Fiona Bell, Katie Biggs, Frank Hopfgartner, Suvodeep Mazumdar, Jennifer Petrie, Steve Goodacre
Objective: To assess accuracy of telephone triage in identifying patients who need emergency care amongst those with suspected COVID-19 infection and identify factors which affect triage accuracy. Design: Observational cohort study Setting: Community telephone triage in the Yorkshire and Humber, Bassetlaw, North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire region. Participants: 40, 261 adults who contacted NHS 111 telephone triage services provided by Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS Trust between the 18th March 2020 and 29th June 2020 with symptoms indicating possible COVID-19 infection were linked to Office for National Statistics death registration data, hospital and general practice electronic health care data collected by NHS Digital. Outcome: Accuracy of triage disposition (self-care/non-urgent clinical assessment versus ambulance dispatch/urgent clinical assessment) was assessed in terms of death or need for organ support at 30, 7 and 3 days from first contact with the telephone triage service. Results: Callers had a 3% (1, 200/40, 261) risk of adverse outcome. Telephone triage recommended self-care or non-urgent assessment for 60% (24, 335/40, 261), with a 1.3% (310/24, 335) risk of subsequent adverse outcome. Telephone triage had 74.2% sensitivity (95% CI: 71.6 to 76.6%) and 61.5% specificity (61% to 62%) for adverse outcomes at 30 days from first contact. Multivariable analysis suggested some co-morbidities (such as chronic respiratory disease) may be over-estimated as predictors of adverse outcome, while the association of diabetes with adverse outcome may be under-estimated. Repeat contact with the service appears to be an important under recognised predictor of adverse outcomes with both 2 contacts (OR 1.77 95% CI: 1.14 to 2.75) and 3 or more contacts (OR 4.02 95% CI: 1.68 to 9.65) associated with clinical deterioration when not provided with an ambulance or urgent clinical assessment. Conclusion: Patients advised to self-care or receive non-urgent clinical assessment had a small but non-negligible risk of serious clinical deterioration. The sensitivity and specificity of telephone triage was comparable to other tools used to triage patient acuity in emergency and urgent care. Repeat contact with telephone services needs recognition as an important predictor of subsequent adverse outcomes.
119 downloads medRxiv emergency medicine
Background Patients transported by paramedics for non-emergent conditions are increasing in Ontario and contribute to an emergency department (ED) crisis. Redirecting certain patients to sub-acute healthcare may be beneficial and suitable. We examined if ED interventions conducted on non-emergent paramedic transported patients could be conducted in sub-acute health centres. Methods A RAND/UCLA modified Delphi study was conducted. Twenty emergency and primary care physicians rated the suitability of the 150 most frequently recorded interventions for completion in sub-acute healthcare centres and provided comments to augment ratings. Interventions were performed on non-emergent adult patients transported by paramedics to an ED, and abstracted from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System database (January 1, 2014 to March 31, 2018). We used two rounds of a modified Delphi process and set consensus at 70% agreement. Results Consensus was reached on 146 (97.3%) interventions; 103 interventions (68.7%) were suitable for sub-acute centres, 43 (28.7%) for ED only; 4 (2.6%) did not receive consensus. For sub-acute centres, all 103 interventions were rated for urgent care centres; walk-in medical centres were applicable for 46 (30.6%) and nurse practitioner-led clinics for 47 (31.3). Diagnostic imaging availability, physician preferences and staffing were determining factors for discrepancies in sub-acute centre ratings. Interpretation The majority of included ED interventions performed on non-emergent patients transported by paramedics were identified as suitable for urgent care clinics, with one-third being suitable for either walk-in medical centres or nurse practitioner-led clinics. In combination with additional patient details and supports, knowledge of interventions suitable for sub-acute healthcare centres will inform a patient classification model for paramedic-initiated redirection of patients from ED.
119 downloads medRxiv emergency medicine
Niv Samuel Mastboim, Alon Angel, Oded Shaham, Tahel Ilan Ber, Roy Navon, Einav Simon, Michal Rosenberg, Yael Israeli, Mary Hainrichson, Noa Avni, Eran Reiner, Paul Feigin, Kfir Oved, Boaz Tadmor, Pierre Singer, Ilya Kagan, Shaul Lev, Dror Diker, Amir Jarjoui, Ramzi Kurd, Eli Ben-Chetrit, Guy Danziger, Cihan Papan, Sergey Motov, Maanit Shapira, Michal Stein, Adi Klein, Tanya Michelle Gottlieb, Eran Eden
BACKGROUND Accurately identifying COVID-19 patients at-risk to deteriorate remains challenging. Tools integrating host-protein expression have proven useful in determining infection etiology and hold potential for prognosticating disease severity. METHODS Adults with COVID-19 were recruited at medical centers in Israel, Germany, and the United States. Severe outcome was defined as intensive care unit admission, non-invasive or invasive ventilation, or death. Tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and interferon gamma inducible protein-10 (IP-10; also known as CXCL10) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured using an analyzer providing values within 15 minutes. A signature indicating the likelihood of severe outcome was derived generating a score (0-100). Patients were assigned to 4 score bins. RESULTS Between March and November 2020, 518 COVID-19 patients were enrolled, of whom 394 were eligible, 29% meeting a severe outcome. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the signature was 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.81-0.91). Performance was not confounded by age, sex, or comorbidities and superior to IL-6 (AUC 0.77; p = 0.033) and CRP (AUC 0.78; p < 0.001). Likelihood of severe outcome increased significantly (p < 0.001) with higher scores. The signature differentiated patients who further deteriorated after meeting a severe outcome from those who improved (p = 0.004) and projected 14-day survival probabilities (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION The derived immune-protein signature combined with a rapid measurement platform is an accurate predictive tool for early detection of COVID-19 patients at-risk for severe outcome, facilitating timely care escalation and de-escalation and appropriate resource allocation. FUNDING MeMed funded the study
114 downloads medRxiv emergency medicine
ABSTRACT Background Access block due to a lack of hospital beds causes emergency department (ED) crowding. We initiated the boarding restriction protocol that limits ED length of stay (LOS) for patients awaiting hospitalization to 24 hours from arrival. This study aimed to determine the effect of the protocol on ED crowding. Method This was a pre-post comparative study to compare ED crowding before and after protocol implementation. The primary outcome was the red stage fraction with more than 71 occupying patients in the ED (severe crowding level). LOS in the ED, treatment time and boarding time were compared. Additionally, the pattern of boarding patients staying in the ED according to the day of the week was confirmed. Results Analysis of the number of occupying patients in the ED, measured at 10-minute intervals, indicated a decrease from 65.0 (51.0-79.0) to 55.0 (43.0-65.0) in the pre- and post-periods, respectively (p<0.0001). The red stage fraction decreased from 38.9% to 15.1% of the pre- and post-periods, respectively (p<0.0001). The proportion beyond the goal of this protocol of 24 hours decreased from 7.6% to 4.0% (p<0.0001). The ED LOS of all patients was similar: 238.2 (134.0-465.2) and 238.3 (136.9-451.2) minutes in the pre- and post-periods, respectively. In admitted patients, ED LOS decreased from 770.7 (421.4-1587.1) to 630.2 (398.0-1156.8) minutes (p<0.0001); treatment time increased from 319.6 (198.5-482.8) to 344.7 (213.4-519.5) minutes (p<0.0001); and boarding time decreased from 298.9 (109.5-1149.0) to 204.1 (98.7-545.7) minutes (p<0.0001). In the pre-period, boarding patients accumulated in the ED on weekdays, with the accumulation resolved on Fridays; this pattern was alleviated in the post-period. Conclusions The protocol effectively resolved excessive ED crowding by alleviating the accumulation of boarding patients in the ED on weekdays. Additional studies should be conducted on changes this protocol brings to patient flow hospital-wide.
106 downloads medRxiv emergency medicine
Background In high-income countries trauma patients are becoming older, more likely to have comorbidities, and are being injured by low-energy mechanisms, chiefly ground-level falls. It is currently unknown whether existing trauma systems improve the outcomes of these patients. This systematic review investigates the association between higher-level trauma center care and outcomes of adult patients who were admitted to hospital due to injuries sustained following low-energy trauma. Methods A pre-registered systematic review (CRD42020211652) of subject databases and grey literature, supplemented by targeted manual searching, was conducted in January 2021. Studies were eligible if they reported outcomes in adults admitted to hospital due to low-energy trauma. Studies were excluded if participants were not adults or were not admitted to hospital. Studies in lower- and middle-income settings were excluded due to differences in demographics and healthcare systems. Risk of bias was assessed by independent reviewers using the Robins-I tool. In the presence of study heterogeneity a narrative synthesis was pre-specified. Results Three observational studies were included from 2,898 unique records. The studies' risk of bias was moderate-to-serious due to potential residual confounding and selection bias. All studies compared outcomes among adults injured by ground-level falls treated in trauma centers verified by the American College of Surgeons in the USA. The studies reported divergent results. One demonstrated improved outcomes in level 3 or 4 trauma centers (Observed: Expected Mortality 0.973, 95%CI 0.971-0.975), one demonstrated improved outcomes in level 1 trauma centers (Adjusted Odds Ratio 0.71, 95%CI 0.56-0.91), and one demonstrated no difference between level 1 or 2 and level 3 or 4 trauma center care (Adjusted Odds Ratio 0.91 (0.80-1.04). Conclusions There is currently no strong evidence for the efficacy of major trauma centers in caring for adult patients injured by a ground-level fall. Further studies at lower risk of bias and studies conducted outwith the USA are required.
100 downloads medRxiv emergency medicine
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalised patients is a common syndrome associated with poorer patient outcomes. Clinical risk scores can be used for the early identification of patients at risk of AKI. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study using electronic health records of Singapore General Hospital emergency department patients who were admitted from 2008 to 2016. The primary outcome was inpatient AKI of any stage within 7 days of admission based on Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome (KDIGO) 2012 guidelines. AutoScore, a machine learning based algorithm, was used to generate point based clinical scores from the study sample which was divided into training, validation and testing cohorts. Model performance was evaluated using area under the curve (AUC). Results: Among the 119,468 admissions, 10,693 (9.0%) developed AKI. 8,491 were stage 1 (79.4%), 906 stage 2 (8.5%) and 1,296 stage 3 (12.1%). The AKI Risk Score (AKI-RiSc) was a summation of the integer scores of 6 variables: serum creatinine, serum bicarbonate, pulse, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. AUC of AKI-RiSc was 0.730 (95% CI: 0.713 - 0.747), outperforming an existing AKI Prediction Score model which achieved AUC of 0.665 (95% CI: 0.646 - 0.679) when evaluated on the same test cohort. At a cut-off of 4 points, AKI-RiSc had a sensitivity of 82.5% and specificity of 46.7%. Conclusion: AKI-RiSc is a simple point based clinical score that can be easily implemented on the ground for early identification of AKI in high-risk patients and potentially be applied in healthcare settings internationally.
55 downloads medRxiv emergency medicine
Introduction Over 1.7 million episodes of agitation occur annually across the United States in emergency departments (EDs), some of which lead to workplace assaults on clinicians and require invasive methods like physical restraints to maintain staff and patient safety. Recent studies demonstrated that experiences of workplace violence lead to symptoms of burnout, which may impact future decisions regarding use of physical restraints on agitated patients. To capture the dynamic interactions between clinicians and agitated patients under their care, we applied qualitative system dynamics methods to develop a model that describes causal feedback mechanisms of clinician burnout and the use of physical restraints to manage agitation. Methods We convened an interprofessional panel of clinician stakeholders and agitation experts for a series of model building sessions to develop the current model. The panel derived the final version of our model over ten sessions of iterative refinement and modification, each lasting approximately three to four hours. We incorporated findings from prior studies on agitation and burnout as a result of workplace violence, identifying interpersonal and psychological factors likely to influence our outcomes of interest to form the basis of our model. Results The final model resulted in five main sets of feedback loops that describe key narratives regarding the relationship between clinician burnout and agitated patients becoming physically restrained: (1) use of restraints decreases agitation and risk of assault, leading to increased perceptions of safety and decreasing use of restraints in a balancing feedback loop which stabilizes the system; (2) clinician stress leads to a perception of decreased safety and lower threshold to restrain, causing more stress in a negatively reinforcing loop; (3) clinician burnout leads to a decreased perception of colleague support which leads to more burnout in a negatively reinforcing loop; (4) clinician burnout leads to negative perceptions of patient intent during agitation, thus lowering threshold to restrain and leading to higher task load, more likelihood of workplace assaults, and higher burnout in a negatively reinforcing loop; and (5) mutual trust between clinicians causes increased perceptions of safety and improved team control, leading to decreased clinician stress and further increased mutual trust in a positively reinforcing loop. Conclusions Our system dynamics approach led to the development of a robust qualitative model that illustrates a number of important feedback cycles that underly the relationships between clinician experiences of workplace violence, stress and burnout, and impact on decisions to physically restrain agitated patients. This work identifies potential opportunities at multiple targets to break negatively reinforcing cycles and support positive influences on safety for both clinicians and patients in the face of physical danger.
44 downloads medRxiv emergency medicine
Introduction. Triage is a key principle in the effective management of major incidents. There is currently a paucity of evidence to guide the triage of children. The aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of nine adult and paediatric triage tools, including the novel Sheffield Paediatric Triage Tool (SPTT), assessing their ability in identifying patients needing life-saving interventions (LSI). Methods A ten-year retrospective database review of TARN data for paediatric patients (<16years) was performed. Primary outcome was identification of patients receiving one or more LSIs from a previously defined list. Secondary outcomes included mortality and prediction of ISS>15. Primary analysis was conducted on patients with complete pre-hospital physiological data with planned secondary analyses using first recorded physiological data. Performance characteristics were evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, under and over-triage. Results 15133 patients met TARN inclusion criteria. 4962 (32.8%) had complete pre-hospital physiological data and 8255 (54.5%) had complete first recorded data. Male patients predominated (69.5%), sustaining blunt trauma (95.4%) with a median ISS of 9. 875 patients (17.6%) received at least one LSI. The SPTT demonstrated the greatest sensitivity of all triage tools at identifying need for LSI (92.2%) but was associated with the highest rate of over-triage (75.0%). Both the PTT (sensitivity 34.1%) and JumpSTART (sensitivity 45.0%) performed less well at identifying LSI. By contrast, the adult MPTT-24 triage tool had the second highest sensitivity (80.8%) with tolerable rates of over-triage (70.2%). Conclusion The SPTT and MPTT-24 outperform existing paediatric triage tools at identifying those patients requiring LSIs. This may necessitate a change in recommended practice. Further work is needed to determine the optimum method of paediatric major incident triage, but consideration should be given to simplifying major incident triage by the use of one generic tool (the MPTT-24) for adults and children.
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