Rxivist combines preprints from bioRxiv with data from Twitter to help you find the papers being discussed in your field. Currently indexing 64,899 bioRxiv papers from 287,648 authors.
Most downloaded bioRxiv papers, since beginning of last month
in category molecular biology
1,795 results found. For more information, click each entry to expand.
7,629 downloads molecular biology
Glycans modify lipids and proteins to mediate inter- and intramolecular interactions across all domains of life. RNA, another multifaceted biopolymer, is not thought to be a major target of glycosylation. Here, we challenge this view with evidence that mammalian cells use RNA as a third scaffold for glycosylation in the secretory pathway. Using a battery of chemical and biochemical approaches, we find that a select group of small noncoding RNAs including Y RNAs are modified with complex, sialylated N-glycans (glycoRNAs). These glycoRNA are present in multiple cell types and mammalian species, both in cultured cells and in vivo. Finally, we find that RNA glycosylation depends on the canonical N-glycan biosynthetic machinery within the ER/Golgi luminal spaces. Collectively, these findings suggest the existence of a ubiquitous interface of RNA biology and glycobiology suggesting an expanded role for glycosylation beyond canonical lipid and protein scaffolds.
4,787 downloads molecular biology
Christopher D Go, James D R Knight, Archita Rajasekharan, Bhavisha Rathod, Geoffrey G Hesketh, Kento T Abe, Ji-Young Youn, Payman Samavarchi-Tehrani, Hui Zhang, Lucie Y Zhu, Evelyn Popiel, Jean-Philippe Lambert, Étienne Coyaud, Sally W T Cheung, Dushyandi Rajendran, Cassandra J Wong, Hana Antonicka, Laurence Pelletier, Brian Raught, Alexander F Palazzo, Eric A Shoubridge, Anne-Claude Gingras
Compartmentalization is an essential characteristic of eukaryotic cells, ensuring that cellular processes are partitioned to defined subcellular locations. High throughput microscopy and biochemical fractionation coupled with mass spectrometry have helped to define the proteomes of multiple organelles and macromolecular structures. However, many compartments have remained refractory to such methods, partly due to lysis and purification artefacts and poor subcompartment resolution. Recently developed proximity-dependent biotinylation approaches such as BioID and APEX provide an alternative avenue for defining the composition of cellular compartments in living cells. Here we report an extensive BioID-based proximity map of a human cell, comprising 192 markers from 32 different compartments that identifies 35,902 unique high confidence proximity interactions and localizes 4,145 proteins expressed in HEK293 cells. The recall of our localization predictions is on par with or better than previous large-scale mass spectrometry and microscopy approaches, but with higher localization specificity. In addition to assigning compartment and subcompartment localization for many previously unlocalized proteins, our data contain fine- grained localization information that, for example, allowed us to identify proteins with novel roles in mitochondrial dynamics. As a community resource, we have created humancellmap.org, a website that allows exploration of our data in detail, and aids with the analysis of BioID experiments.
1,322 downloads molecular biology
Chromatin remodelling complexes of the SWI/SNF family function in the formation of nucleosome-depleted regions and transcriptionally active promoters in the eukaryote genome. The structure of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SWI/SNF family member RSC in complex with a nucleosome substrate reveals five protein modules and suggests key features of the remodelling mechanism. A DNA-interacting module grasps extra-nucleosomal DNA and helps to recruit RSC to promoters. The ATPase and arm modules sandwich the nucleosome disc with their 'SnAC' and 'finger' elements, respectively. The translocase motor engages with the edge of the nucleosome at superhelical location +2 to pump DNA along the nucleosome, resulting in a sliding of the histone octamer along DNA. The results elucidate how nucleosome-depleted regions are formed and provide a basis for understanding human chromatin remodelling complexes of the SWI/SNF family and the consequences of cancer mutations that frequently occur in these complexes.
1,035 downloads molecular biology
Single-cell transcriptomics has sensitivity limits that restrict low abundance transcript identification, affects clustering and introduce artefact. Here, we describe Constellation DropSeq (C-DropSeq), a molecular transcriptome filter that delivers two orders of magnitude sensitivity gains by maximising read utility while reducing sequencing depth and costs. The simple and powerful method is broadly compatible with library preparation routines and was demonstrated by identifying and characterizing the activation of rare dendritic cell sub-populations.
1,016 downloads molecular biology
Yuancheng Lu, Anitha Krishnan, Benedikt Brommer, Xiao Tian, Margarita Meer, Daniel L. Vera, Chen Wang, Qiurui Zeng, Doudou Yu, Michael S. Bonkowski, Jae-Hyun Yang, Emma M. Hoffmann, Songlin Zhou, Ekaterina Korobkina, Noah Davidsohn, Michael B. Schultz, Karolina Chwalek, Luis A. Rajman, George M Church, Konrad Hochedlinger, Vadim N Gladyshev, Steve Horvath, Meredith S. Gregory-Ksander, Bruce R. Ksander, Zhigang He, David A. Sinclair
Ageing is a degenerative process leading to tissue dysfunction and death. A proposed cause of ageing is the accumulation of epigenetic noise, which disrupts youthful gene expression patterns that are required for cells to function optimally and recover from damage. Changes to DNA methylation patterns over time form the basis of an 'ageing clock', but whether old individuals retain information to reset the clock and, if so, whether this would improve tissue function is not known. Of all the tissues in the body, the central nervous system (CNS) is one of the first to lose regenerative capacity. Using the eye as a model tissue, we show that expression of Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 genes (OSK) in mice resets youthful gene expression patterns and the DNA methylation age of retinal ganglion cells, promotes axon regeneration after optic nerve crush injury, and restores vision in a mouse model of glaucoma and in normal old mice. This process, which we call recovery of information via epigenetic reprogramming or REVIVER, requires the DNA demethylases Tet1 and Tet2, indicating that DNA methylation patterns don't just indicate age, they participate in ageing. Thus, old tissues retain a faithful record of youthful epigenetic information that can be accessed for functional age reversal.
1,005 downloads molecular biology
Jae-Hyun Yang, Patrick T. Griffin, Daniel L. Vera, John K. Apostolides, Motoshi Hayano, Margarita V. Meer, Elias L. Salfati, Qiao Su, Elizabeth M Munding, Marco Blanchette, Mital Bhakta, Zhixun Dou, Caiyue Xu, Jeffrey W. Pippin, Michael L. Creswell, Brendan L. O'Connell, Richard E. Green, Benjamin A Garcia, Shelley L Berger, Philipp Oberdoerffer, Stuart J. Shankland, Vadim N Gladyshev, Luis A. Rajman, Andreas R Pfenning, David A. Sinclair
All living things experience entropy, manifested as a loss of inherited genetic and epigenetic information over time. As budding yeast cells age, epigenetic changes result in a loss of cell identity and sterility, both hallmarks of yeast aging. In mammals, epigenetic information is also lost over time, but what causes it to be lost and whether it is a cause or a consequence of aging is not known. Here we show that the transient induction of genomic instability, in the form of a low number of non-mutagenic DNA breaks, accelerates many of the chromatin and tissue changes seen during aging, including the erosion of the epigenetic landscape, a loss of cellular identity, advancement of the DNA methylation clock and cellular senescence. These data support a model in which a loss of epigenetic information is a cause of aging in mammals.
922 downloads molecular biology
The multi-subunit chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF is highly conserved from yeast to humans and plays critical roles in various cellular processes including transcription and DNA damage repair. It uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to remodel chromatin structure by sliding and evicting the histone octamer, creating DNA regions that become accessible to other essential protein complexes. However, our mechanistic understanding of the chromatin remodeling activity is largely hindered by the lack of a high-resolution structure of any complex from this family. Here we report the first structure of SWI/SNF from the yeast S. cerevisiae bound to a nucleosome at near atomic resolution determined by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). In the structure, the Arp module is sandwiched between the ATPase and the Body module of the complex, with the Snf2 HSA domain connecting all modules. The HSA domain also extends into the Body and anchors at the opposite side of the complex. The Body contains an assembly scaffold composed of conserved subunits Snf12 (SMARCD/BAF60), Snf5 (SMARCB1/BAF47/ INI1) and an asymmetric dimer of Swi3 (SMARCC/BAF155/170). Another conserved subunit Swi1 (ARID1/BAF250) folds into an Armadillo (ARM) repeat domain that resides in the core of the SWI/SNF Body, acting as a molecular hub. In addition to the interaction between Snf2 and the nucleosome, we also observed interactions between the conserved Snf5 subunit and the histones at the acidic patch, which could serve as an anchor point during active DNA translocation. Our structure allows us to map and rationalize a subset of cancer-related mutations in the human SWI/SNF complex and propose a model of how SWI/SNF recognizes and remodels the +1 nucleosome to generate nucleosome-depleted regions during gene activation.
778 downloads molecular biology
Histone acetylation is a ubiquitous hallmark of transcriptional activity, but whether the link is of a causal or consequential nature is still a matter of debate. In this study we resolve this question. Using both immunoblot analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) in S. cerevisiae, we show that the majority of histone acetylation is dependent on transcription. Loss of histone H4 acetylation upon transcription inhibition is partially explained by depletion of histone acetyltransferases (HATs) from gene bodies, implicating transcription in HAT targeting. Despite this, HAT occupancy alone poorly predicts histone acetylation, suggesting that HAT activity is regulated at a step post-recruitment. Collectively, these data show that the majority of histone acetylation is a consequence of RNAPII promoting both the recruitment and activity of histone acetyltransferases.
776 downloads molecular biology
Motoshi Hayano, Jae-Hyun Yang, Michael S. Bonkowski, João A. Amorim, Jaime M. Ross, Giuseppe Coppotelli, Patrick T. Griffin, Yap Ching Chew, Wei Guo, Xiaojing Yang, Daniel L. Vera, Elias L. Salfati, Abhirup Das, Sachin Thakur, Alice E. Kane, Sarah J. Mitchell, Yasuaki Mohri, Emi K. Nishimura, Laura Schaevitz, Neha Garg, Ana-Maria Balta, Meghan A Rego, Meredith Gregory-Ksander, Tatjana C. Jakobs, Lei Zhong, Hiroko Wakimoto, Raul Mostoslavsky, Amy J Wagers, Kazuo Tsubota, Stephen J Bonasera, Carlos M. Palmeira, Jonathan G Seidman, Christine E. Seidman, Norman S. Wolf, Jill A. Kreiling, John M Sedivy, George F. Murphy, Philipp Oberdoerffer, Bruce R. Ksander, Luis A. Rajman, David A. Sinclair
There are numerous hallmarks of aging in mammals, but no unifying cause has been identified. In budding yeast, aging is associated with a loss of epigenetic information that occurs in response to genome instability, particularly DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Mammals also undergo predictable epigenetic changes with age, including alterations to DNA methylation patterns that serve as epigenetic "age" clocks, but what drives these changes is not known. Using a transgenic mouse system called "ICE" (for inducible changes to the epigenome), we show that a tissue's response to non-mutagenic DSBs reorganizes the epigenome and accelerates physiological, cognitive, and molecular changes normally seen in older mice, including advancement of the epigenetic clock. These findings implicate DSB-induced epigenetic drift as a conserved cause of aging from yeast to mammals.
760 downloads molecular biology
Cryo-electron tomography (cryoET) has become a powerful technique at the interface of structural biology and cell biology, with the unique ability to determine structures of macromolecular complexes in their cellular context. A major limitation of cryoET is its restriction to relatively thin samples. Sample thinning by cryo-focused ion beam (cryoFIB) milling has significantly expanded the range of samples that can be analyzed by cryoET. Unfortunately, cryoFIB milling is low-throughput, time-consuming and manual. Here we report a method for fully automated sequential cryoFIB preparation of high-quality lamellae, including rough milling and polishing. We reproducibly applied this method to eukaryotic and bacterial model organisms, and show that the resulting lamellae are suitable for cryoET imaging and subtomogram averaging. Since our method reduces the time required for lamella preparation and minimizes the need for user input, we envision the technique will render previously inaccessible projects feasible.
687 downloads molecular biology
Nucleic acid stains are necessary for Agarose Gel Electrophoresis (AGE). The commonly used but mutagenic Ethidium Bromide is being usurped by a range of safer but more expensive alternatives. These safe stains vary in cost, sensitivity and the impedance of DNA as it migrates through the gel. Modified protocols developed to reduce cost increase this variability. In this study, five Gel stains (GelRed™, GelGreen™, SYBR™ safe, SafeView and EZ-Vision®In-Gel Solution) two premixed loading dyes (SafeWhite, EZ-Vision®One) and four methods (pre-loading at 100x, pre-loading at 10x, precasting and post-staining) are evaluated for sensitivity and effect on DNA migration. GelRed™ was found to be the most sensitive while the EZ-Vision® dyes and SafeWhite had no discernible effect on DNA migration. Homemade loading dyes were as effective as readymade ones at less than 4% of the price. This method used less than 1% of the dye needed for the manufacturer recommended protocols. Thus, with careful consideration of stain and method, Gel stain expenditure can be reduced by over 99%.
670 downloads molecular biology
We previously described a novel alternative to Chromatin Immunoprecipitation, Cleavage Under Targets & Release Using Nuclease (CUT&RUN), in which unfixed permeabilized cells are incubated with antibody, followed by binding of a Protein A-Micrococcal Nuclease (pA/MNase) fusion protein (1). Upon activation of tethered MNase, the bound complex is excised and released into the supernatant for DNA extraction and sequencing. Here we introduce four enhancements to CUT&RUN: 1) a hybrid Protein A-Protein G-MNase construct that expands antibody compatibility and simplifies purification; 2) a modified digestion protocol that inhibits premature release of the nuclease-bound complex; 3) a calibration strategy based on carry-over of E. coli DNA introduced with the fusion protein; and 4) a novel peak-calling strategy customized for the low-background profiles obtained using CUT&RUN. These new features, coupled with the previously described low-cost, high efficiency, high reproducibility and high- throughput capability of CUT&RUN make it the method of choice for routine epigenomic profiling.
655 downloads molecular biology
Eukaryotic DNA is packaged into nucleosome arrays, which are repositioned by chromatin remodeling complexes to control DNA accessibility. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae RSC (Remodeling the Structure of Chromatin) complex, a member of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeler family, plays critical roles in genome maintenance, transcription, and DNA repair. Here we report cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and crosslinking mass spectrometry (CLMS) studies of yeast RSC complex and show that RSC is composed of a rigid tripartite core and two flexible lobes. The core structure is scaffolded by an asymmetric Rsc8 dimer and built with the evolutionarily conserved subunits Sfh1, Rsc6, Rsc9 and Sth1. The flexible ATPase lobe, composed of helicase subunit Sth1, Arp7, Arp9 and Rtt102, is anchored through the interactions between the N-terminus of Sth1 and the core. Our cryo-EM analysis also shows that in addition to the expected nucleosome-Sth1 interactions, RSC engages histones and nucleosomal DNA through one arm of the core structure, composed of Rsc8 SWRIM domains, Sfh1 and Npl6. Our findings provide structural insights into the conserved assembly process for all members of the SWI/SNF family of remodelers, and illustrate how RSC selects, engages, and remodels nucleosomes.
551 downloads molecular biology
The structure-specific endonuclease XPF-ERCC1 participates in multiple DNA damage repair pathways including nucleotide excision repair (NER) and inter-strand crosslink repair (ICLR). How XPF-ERCC1 is catalytically activated by DNA junction substrates is not currently understood. We report cryo-electron microscopy structures of both DNA-free and DNA-bound human XPF-ERCC1. DNA-free XPF-ERCC1 adopts an auto-inhibited conformation in which the XPF helical domain masks ERCC1 DNA-binding elements and restricts access to the XPF catalytic site. Binding of a model DNA junction separates the XPF helical and ERCC1 (HhH)2 domains, promoting activation. Using these structural data, we propose a model for a 5′-NER incision complex involving XPF-ERCC1-XPA and a DNA junction substrate. Structure-function data suggest xeroderma pigmentosum patient mutations often compromise the structural integrity of XPF-ERCC1. Fanconi anaemia patient mutations often display substantial in-vitro activity but are resistant to activation by ICLR recruitment factor SLX4. Our data provide insights into XPF-ERCC1 architecture and catalytic activation.
547 downloads molecular biology
For over three decades, K-RAS has been known as the holy grail of cancer targets, one of the most frequently mutated oncogenes in cancer. Because the development of conventional small molecule K-RAS inhibitors has been extremely challenging, K-RAS has been dubbed as an undruggable target, and only recently a mutation specific inhibitor has reached clinical trials. Targeted protein degradation has emerged as a new modality in drug discovery to tackle undruggable targets. However, no degrader for K-RAS has been described thus far. Our laboratory has developed an Affinity-directed PROtein Missile (AdPROM) system for targeted proteolysis of endogenous proteins through the ubiquitin proteasome system. Here, we show that we can achieve degradation of endogenous K-RAS and H-RAS in different cell lines in a targeted manner using our AdPROM system. Our findings imply that endogenous RAS proteins can be targeted for proteolysis, thereby offering tantalising possibilities for an alternative therapeutic approach to these so-called undruggable targets in cancer.
497 downloads molecular biology
Proteins are typically denatured and aggregated by heat. Exceptions to this principle include highly disordered and heat-resistant proteins found in extremophiles, which help these organisms tolerate extreme conditions such as drying, freezing, and high salinity. In contrast, the functions of heat-soluble proteins in non-extremophilic organisms including humans remain largely unexplored. Here we report that heat-resistant obscure (Hero) proteins, which remain soluble after boiling at 95°C, are widespread in Drosophila and humans. Hero proteins are hydrophilic and highly charged, and function to stabilize various "client" proteins, protecting them from denaturation even under stress conditions such as heat shock, desiccation, and exposure to organic solvents. Hero proteins can also block several different types of pathological protein aggregations in cells, and in Drosophila strains that model neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, some Hero proteins extend lifespan of Drosophila . Our study reveals that organisms naturally use Hero proteins as molecular shields to stabilize protein functions, highlighting their biotechnological and therapeutic potential.
490 downloads molecular biology
Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) of proteins and RNAs has emerged as the driving force underlying the formation of membrane-less organelles. Such biomolecular condensates have various biological functions and have been linked to disease. One of the best studied proteins undergoing LLPS is Fused in Sarcoma (FUS), a predominantly nuclear RNA-binding protein. Mutations in FUS have been causally linked to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), an adult-onset motor neuron disease, and LLPS followed by aggregation of cytoplasmic FUS has been proposed to be a crucial disease mechanism. In spite of this, it is currently unclear how LLPS impacts the behaviour of FUS in cells, e.g. its interactome. In order to study the consequences of LLPS on FUS and its interaction partners, we developed a method that allows for the purification of phase separated FUS-containing droplets from cell lysates. We observe substantial alterations in the interactome of FUS, depending on its biophysical state. While non-phase separated FUS interacts mainly with its well-known interaction partners involved in pre-mRNA processing, phase-separated FUS predominantly binds to proteins involved in chromatin remodelling and DNA damage repair. Interestingly, factors with function in mitochondria are strongly enriched with phase-separated FUS, providing a potential explanation for early changes in mitochondrial gene expression observed in mouse models of ALS-FUS. In summary, we present a methodology that allows to investigate the interactome of phase-separating proteins and provide evidence that LLPS strongly shapes the FUS interactome with important implications for function and disease.
447 downloads molecular biology
Cardiorenal syndrome is defined by primary heart failure conditions influencing or leading to renal injury or dysfunction. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major co-existing form of heart failure (HF) with renal diseases. Myocardin (MYOCD), a cardiac-specific co-activator of serum response factor (SRF), is increased in DCM mice and patient cardiac tissues and plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of DCM. Inhibiting the increased MYOCD has shown to be partially rescuing the DCM mice phenotype. However, expression levels of MYOCD in the cardiac tissues of the cardiorenal syndromic patients and the beneficial effect of inhibiting MYOCD in a cardiorenal syndrome model remains to be explored. Here, we analyzed the expression levels of MYOCD in the DCM patients with and without renal diseases. We also explored, whether cardiac specific silencing of MYOCD expression could ameliorate the cardiac remodeling and improve cardiac function in a renal artery ligated rat model (RAL). We observed an increase in MYOCD levels in the endomyocardial biopsies of DCM patients associated with renal failure compared to DCM alone. Silencing of MYOCD in RAL rats by a cardiac homing peptide conjugated MYOCD siRNA resulted in attenuation of cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and restoration of the left ventricular functions. Our data suggest hyper-activation of MYOCD in the pathogenesis of the cardiorenal failure cases. Also, MYOCD silencing showed beneficial effects by rescuing cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, size and function in a cardiorenal rat model.
396 downloads molecular biology
Stop codon readthrough (SCR) occurs when the ribosome miscodes at a stop codon. Such readthrough events can be therapeutically desirable when a premature termination codon (PTC) is found in a critical gene. To study SCR in vivo in a genome-wide manner, we treated mammalian cells with aminoglycosides and performed ribosome profiling. We find that in addition to stimulating readthrough of PTCs, aminoglycosides stimulate readthrough of normal termination codons (NTCs) genome-wide. Stop codon identity, the nucleotide following the stop codon, and the surrounding mRNA sequence context all influence the likelihood of SCR. In comparison to NTCs, downstream stop codons in 3'UTRs are recognized less efficiently by ribosomes, suggesting that targeting of critical stop codons for readthrough may be achievable without general disruption of translation termination. Finally, we find that G418 treatment globally alters gene expression with substantial effects on translation of histone genes, selenoprotein genes, and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AMD1).
379 downloads molecular biology
High-throughput amplicon sequencing of large genomic regions represents a challenge for existing short-read technologies. Long-read technologies can in theory sequence large genomic regions, but they currently suffer from high error rates. Here, we report a high-throughput amplicon sequencing approach that combines unique molecular identifiers (UMIs) with Oxford Nanopore sequencing to generate single-molecule consensus sequences of large genomic regions. We demonstrate the approach by generating nearly 10,000 full-length ribosomal RNA (rRNA) operons of roughly 4,400 bp in length from a mock microbial community consisting of eight bacterial species using a single Oxford Nanopore MinION flowcell. The mean error rate of the consensus sequences was 0.03%, with no detectable chimeras due to a rigorous UMI-barcode filtering strategy. The simplicity and accessibility of this method paves way for widespread use of high-accuracy amplicon sequencing in a variety of genomic applications.
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