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Results 1 through 20 out of 131850


1: More than 50 Long-term effects of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Sandra Lopez-Leon, Talia Wegman-Ostrosky et al.

24,114 downloads (posted 29 Jan 2021) infectious diseases

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, can involve sequelae and other medical complications that last weeks to months after initial recovery, which has come to be called Long-COVID or COVID long-haulers. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to identify studies assessing long-term effects of COVID-19 and estimates the prevalence of each symptom, sign, or laboratory parameter of patients at a post-COVID-19 stage. LitCOVID (PubMed and Medline) and Embase were searched by two independent researchers. All articles with original data for detecting long-term COVID-19 published before 1st of January 2021 and with a minimum of 100 patients were included. For effects reported in two or more studies, meta-analyses using a random-effects model were performed using the MetaXL software to estimate the pooled prevalence with 95% CI. Heterogeneity was assessed using I2 statistics. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviewers and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) reporting guideline was followed. A total of 18,251 publications were identified, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of 55 long-term effects was estimated, 21 meta-analyses were performed, and 47,910 patients were included. The follow-up time ranged from 15 to 110 days post-viral infection. The age of the study participants ranged between 17 and 87 years. It was estimated that 80% (95% CI 65-92) of the patients that were infected with SARS-CoV-2 developed one or more long-term symptoms. The five most common symptoms were fatigue (58%), headache (44%), attention disorder (27%), hair loss (25%), and dyspnea (24%). All meta-analyses showed medium (n=2) to high heterogeneity (n=13). In order to have a better understanding, future studies need to stratify by sex, age, previous comorbidities, severity of COVID-19 (ranging from asymptomatic to severe), and duration of each symptom. From the clinical perspective, multi-disciplinary teams are crucial to developing preventive measures, rehabilitation techniques, and clinical management strategies with whole-patient perspectives designed to address long COVID-19 care.


2: Antibody evasion by the Brazilian P.1 strain of SARS-CoV-2

Wanwisa - Dejnirattisai, Daming - Zhou et al.

18,927 downloads (posted 15 Mar 2021) microbiology

Terminating the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic relies upon pan-global vaccination. Current vaccines elicit neutralizing antibody responses to the virus spike derived from early isolates. However, new strains have emerged with multiple mutations: P.1 from Brazil, B.1.351 from South Africa and B.1.1.7 from the UK (12, 10 and 9 changes in the spike respectively). All have mutations in the ACE2 binding site with P.1 and B.1.351 having a virtually identical triplet: E484K, K417N/T and N501Y, which we show confer similar increased affin...


3: SARS-CoV-2 antibodies detected in human breast milk post-vaccination

Jill K. Baird, Shawn M. Jensen et al.

17,922 downloads (posted 02 Mar 2021) infectious diseases

Importance: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has infected over a hundred million people worldwide, with almost 2.5 million deaths at the date of this publication. In the United States, Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines were first administered to the public starting in December 2020, and no lactating women were included in the initial trials of safety/efficacy. Research on SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in lactating women and the potential transmission of passive immunity to the infant through breast milk is needed to guide patients, ...


4: What level of neutralising antibody protects from COVID-19? .

David S. Khoury, Deborah Cromer et al.

15,225 downloads (posted 11 Mar 2021) infectious diseases

Both previous infection and vaccination have been shown to provide potent protection from COVID-19. However, there are concerns that waning immunity and viral variation may lead to a loss of protection over time. Predictive models of immune protection are urgently needed to identify immune correlates of protection to assist in the future deployment of vaccines. To address this, we modelled the relationship between in vitro neutralisation levels and observed protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection using data from seven curr...


5: Negligible impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants on CD4+ and CD8+ T cell reactivity in COVID-19 exposed donors and vaccinees.

Alison Tarke, John Sidney et al.

14,274 downloads (posted 01 Mar 2021) immunology

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants highlighted the need to better understand adaptive immune responses to this virus. It is important to address whether also CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses are affected, because of the role they play in disease resolution and modulation of COVID-19 disease severity. Here we performed a comprehensive analysis of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses from COVID-19 convalescent subjects recognizing the ancestral strain, compared to variant lineages B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, and ...


6: Decreased SARS-CoV-2 viral load following vaccination

Matan Levine-Tiefenbrun, Idan Yelin et al.

13,719 downloads (posted 08 Feb 2021) infectious diseases

Beyond their substantial protection of individual vaccinees, it is hoped that the COVID-19 vaccines would reduce viral load in breakthrough infections thereby further suppress onward transmission. Here, analyzing positive SARS-CoV-2 test results following inoculation with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, we find that the viral load is reduced 4-fold for infections occurring 12-28 days after the first dose of vaccine. These reduced viral loads hint to lower infectiousness, further contributing to vaccine impact on virus spread...


7: Robust spike antibody responses and increased reactogenicity in seropositive individuals after a single dose of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine

Florian Krammer, Komal Srivastava et al.

13,496 downloads (posted 01 Feb 2021) allergy and immunology

As COVID-19 vaccines are getting rolled out, an important question is arising: Should individuals who already had a SARS-CoV-2 infection receive one or two shots of the currently authorized mRNA vaccines. In this short report, we are providing evidence that the antibody response to the first vaccine dose in individuals with pre-existing immunity is equal to or even exceeds the titers found in naive individuals after the second dose. We also show that the reactogenicity is significantly higher in individuals who already ...


8: Obesity may hamper SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity

Raul Pellini, Aldo Venuti et al.

12,583 downloads (posted 26 Feb 2021) allergy and immunology

BackgroundThe first goal of the study was to analyse the antibody titre 7 days after the second dose of BNT162b2 vaccine in a group of 248 healthcare workers (HCW). The second goal was to analyse how the antibody titre changes in correlation with age, gender and BMI. MethodsParticipants were assigned to receive the priming dose at baseline and booster dose at day 21. Blood and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected at baseline and 7 days after second dose of vaccine. Findings248 HWCs were analysed, 158 women (63.7%) and ...


9: Barriers to online learning in the time of COVID-19: A national survey of medical students in the Philippines

Ronnie E Baticulon, Nicole Rose I Alberto et al.

12,243 downloads (posted 18 Jul 2020) medical education

INTRODUCTION: In March 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic forced medical schools in the Philippines to stop face-to-face learning activities and abruptly shift to an online curriculum. This study aimed to identify barriers to online learning from the perspective of medical students in a developing country. METHOD: The authors sent out an electronic survey to medical students in the Philippines from 11 to 24 May 2020. Using a combination of multiple choice, Likert scale, and open-ended questions, the ...


10: Vaccine effectiveness after 1st and 2nd dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 Vaccine in long-term care facility residents and healthcare workers - a Danish cohort study

Ida Rask Moustsen-Helms, Hanne-Dorthe Emborg et al.

10,247 downloads (posted 09 Mar 2021) epidemiology

Abstract Background At the end of 2020, Denmark launched an immunization program against SARS-CoV-2. The Danish health authorities prioritized persons currently living in long-term care facilities (LTCF residents) and frontline healthcare workers (HCW) as the first receivers of vaccination. Here we present preliminary population based vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates in these two target groups. Methods The study was designed as a retrospective registry- and population-based observational cohort study including all L...


11: Tocilizumab in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): preliminary results of a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial

Peter Horby, Mark Campbell et al.

9,925 downloads (posted 11 Feb 2021) infectious diseases

Findings: Between 23 April 2020 and 25 January 2021, 4116 adults were included in the assessment of tocilizumab, including 562 (14%) patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation, 1686 (41%) receiving non-invasive respiratory support, and. 1868 (45%) receiving no respiratory support other than oxygen. Median CRP was 143 [IQR 107-205] mg/L and 3385 (82%) patients were receiving systemic corticosteroids at randomisation. Overall, 596 (29%) of the 2022 patients allocated tocilizumab and 694 (33%) of the 2094 patients ...


12: The B1.351 and P.1 variants extend SARS-CoV-2 host range to mice

Xavier Montagutelli, Matthieu Prot et al.

9,813 downloads (posted 18 Mar 2021) microbiology

Receptor recognition is a major determinant of viral host range, as well as infectivity and pathogenesis. Emergences have been associated with serendipitous events of adaptation upon encounters with a novel host, and the high mutation rate of RNA viruses has been proposed to explain their frequent host shifts. SARS-CoV-2 extensive circulation in humans has been associated with the emergence of variants, including variants of concern (VOCs) with diverse mutations in the spike and increased transmissibility or immune esca...


13: SARS-CoV-2 RNA reverse-transcribed and integrated into the human genome

Liguo Zhang, Alexsia Richards et al.

9,701 downloads (posted 13 Dec 2020) genomics

Prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding and recurrence of PCR-positive tests have been widely reported in patients after recovery, yet these patients most commonly are non-infectious. Here we investigated the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 RNAs can be reverse-transcribed and integrated into the human genome and that transcription of the integrated sequences might account for PCR-positive tests. In support of this hypothesis, we found chimeric transcripts consisting of viral fused to cellular sequences in published data sets of S...


14: The impact of high frequency rapid viral antigen screening on COVID-19 spread and outcomes: a validation and modeling study

Beatrice Nash, Anthony Badea et al.

8,768 downloads (posted 03 Sep 2020) epidemiology

High frequency screening of populations has been proposed as a strategy in facilitating control of the COVID-19 pandemic. We use computational modeling, coupled with clinical data from rapid antigen tests, to predict the impact of frequent viral antigen rapid testing on COVID-19 spread and outcomes. Using patient nasal or nasopharyngeal swab specimens, we demonstrate that the sensitivity/specificity of two rapid antigen tests compared to quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) are 82.0%/100% and 84.7%...


15: COVID-19 in India: State-wise Analysis and Prediction

Palash Ghosh, Rik Ghosh et al.

8,595 downloads (posted 29 Apr 2020) public and global health

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a highly infectious disease, was first detected in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease has spread to 212 countries and territories around the world and infected (confirmed) more than three million people. In India, the disease was first detected on 30 January 2020 in Kerala in a student who returned from Wuhan. The total (cumulative) number of confirmed infected people is more than 37000 till now across India (3 May 2020). Most of the research and newspaper articles focus on ...


16: Estimating the effective reproduction number of the 2019-nCoV in China

Zhidong Cao, Qingpeng Zhang et al.

8,542 downloads (posted 29 Jan 2020) infectious diseases

We estimate the effective reproduction number for 2019-nCoV based on the daily reported cases from China CDC. The results indicate that 2019-nCoV has a higher effective reproduction number than SARS with a comparable fatality rate. Article Summary LineThis modeling study indicates that 2019-nCoV has a higher effective reproduction number than SARS with a comparable fatality rate.


17: Understanding the effectiveness of government interventions in Europe's second wave of COVID-19

Mrinank Sharma, Sören Mindermann et al.

8,269 downloads (posted 26 Mar 2021) epidemiology

As European governments face resurging waves of COVID-19, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) continue to be the primary tool for infection control. However, updated estimates of their relative effectiveness have been absent for Europe's second wave, largely due to a lack of collated data that considers the increased subnational variation and diversity of NPIs. We collect the largest dataset of NPI implementation dates in Europe, spanning 114 subnational areas in 7 countries, with a systematic categorisation of inte...


18: Myocarditis in naturally infected pets with the British variant of COVID-19

Luca Ferasin, Matthieu Fritz et al.

8,076 downloads (posted 18 Mar 2021) microbiology

Domestic pets can contract SARS-CoV-2 infection but, based on the limited information available to date, it is unknown whether the new British B.1.1.7 variant can more easily infect certain animal species or increase the possibility of human-to-animal transmission. In this study, we report the first cases of infection of domestic cats and dogs by the British B.1.1.7 variant of SARS-CoV-2 diagnosed at a specialist veterinary hospital in the South-East of England. Furthermore, we discovered that many owners and handlers o...


19: Case fatality risk of the SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern B.1.1.7 in England

Daniel J Grint, Kevin Wing et al.

8,046 downloads (posted 08 Mar 2021) infectious diseases

The B.1.1.7 variant of concern (VOC) is increasing in prevalence across Europe. Accurate estimation of disease severity associated with this VOC is critical for pandemic planning. We found increased risk of death for VOC compared with non-VOC cases in England (HR: 1.67 (95% CI: 1.34 - 2.09; P<.0001). Absolute risk of death by 28-days increased with age and comorbidities. VOC has potential to spread faster with higher mortality than the pandemic to date.


20: Early effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccination with BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine and ChAdOx1 adenovirus vector vaccine on symptomatic disease, hospitalisations and mortality in older adults in England

Jamie Lopez Bernal, Nick Andrews et al.

7,893 downloads (posted 02 Mar 2021) infectious diseases

ObjectivesTo estimate the real-world effectiveness of the Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2 vaccine and Astrazeneca ChAdOx1 vaccine against Confirmed COVID-19, hospitalisations and deaths. To estimate effectiveness on the UK variant of concern. DesignTest negative case control design SettingCommunity COVID-19 PCR testing in England ParticipantsAll adults in England aged 70 years and older (over 7.5 million). All COVID-19 testing in the community among eligible individuals who reported symptoms between 8th December 2020 and 19...