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Currently indexing 140,607 papers from 597,880 authors.

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Results 1 through 20 out of 135600

 

1: Evidence for increased breakthrough rates of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern in BNT162b2 mRNA vaccinated individuals

Talia Kustin, Noam Harel et al.

46,537 downloads (posted 09 Apr 2021) epidemiology

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been raging for over a year, creating global detrimental impact. The BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine has demonstrated high protection levels, yet apprehension exists that several variants of concerns (VOCs) can surmount the immune defenses generated by the vaccines. Neutralization assays have revealed some reduction in neutralization of VOCs B.1.1.7 and B.1.351, but the relevance of these assays in real life remains unclear. Here, we performed a case-control study that examined whether BNT162b2 vaccinees with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection were more likely to become infected with B.1.1.7 or B.1.351 compared with unvaccinated individuals. Vaccinees infected at least a week after the second dose were disproportionally infected with B.1.351 (odds ratio of 8:1). Those infected between two weeks after the first dose and one week after the second dose, were disproportionally infected by B.1.1.7 (odds ratio of 26:10), suggesting reduced vaccine effectiveness against both VOCs under different dosage/timing conditions. Nevertheless, the B.1.351 incidence in Israel to-date remains low and vaccine effectiveness remains high against B.1.1.7, among those fully vaccinated. These results overall suggest that vaccine breakthrough infection is more frequent with both VOCs, yet a combination of mass-vaccination with two doses coupled with non-pharmaceutical interventions control and contain their spread.

https://rxivist.org/papers/137196
https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.04.06.21254882

2: Dynamics of ORF1ab and N Gene among hospitalized COVID-19 positive cohorts: A hospital based retrospective study

Pojul Loying, Vaishali Sarma et al.

25,877 downloads (posted 23 Nov 2020) infectious diseases

1.ObjectiveThe present study hospital based retrospective study aimed at investigating the dynamics of ORF1ab and N gene from hospitalized COVID-19 positive cohorts considering the Ct values of both genes. Study design and MethodologyRetrospective analyses of Ct values were done from 115 hospitalized COVID-19 positive patients in different time interval. Patients were admitted to the hospital either by RAT or/and RT-PCR and first RT-PCR testing were made after 9 days of incubation followed by testing in every 3 days of...

https://rxivist.org/papers/105486
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.11.22.20236240

3: SARS-CoV-2 RNA reverse-transcribed and integrated into the human genome

Liguo Zhang, Alexsia Richards et al.

23,966 downloads (posted 13 Dec 2020) genomics

Prolonged SARS-CoV-2 RNA shedding and recurrence of PCR-positive tests have been widely reported in patients after recovery, yet these patients most commonly are non-infectious. Here we investigated the possibility that SARS-CoV-2 RNAs can be reverse-transcribed and integrated into the human genome and that transcription of the integrated sequences might account for PCR-positive tests. In support of this hypothesis, we found chimeric transcripts consisting of viral fused to cellular sequences in published data sets of S...

https://rxivist.org/papers/121400
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.12.422516

4: Neutralization of variant under investigation B.1.617 with sera of BBV152 vaccinees

Pragya Yadav, Gajanan N Sapkal et al.

23,476 downloads (posted 23 Apr 2021) immunology

The drastic rise in the number of cases in Maharashtra, India has created a matter of concern for public health experts. Twelve isolates of VUI lineage B.1.617 were propagated in VeroCCL81 cells and characterized. Convalescent sera of the COVID-19 cases and recipients of BBV152 (Covaxin) were able to neutralize VUI B.1.617.

https://rxivist.org/papers/139333
https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.04.23.441101

5: Effectiveness of CoronaVac in the setting of high SARS-CoV-2 P.1 variant transmission in Brazil: A test-negative case-control study

Matt Hitchings, Otavio T. Ranzani et al.

22,013 downloads (posted 07 Apr 2021) infectious diseases

Objectives To estimate the effectiveness of the CoronaVac COVID-19 vaccine in a setting of SARS-CoV-2 P.1 variant transmission. Design Matched test-negative case-control study to estimate the effectiveness of an inactivated vaccine, CoronaVac, with an early analysis of effectiveness following administration at least one vaccine dose and an analysis of effectiveness following administration of the complete two dose schedule. Setting Cohort of healthcare workers (HCWs) in Manaus, where P.1 accounted for 75% of genotyped S...

https://rxivist.org/papers/136903
https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.04.07.21255081

6: Epidemiological description and analysis of RdRp, E and N genes dynamic by RT-PCR of SARS-CoV-2 in Moroccan population: Experience of the National Reference Laboratory (LNR)-UM6SS

Houda Benrahma, Idrissa Diawara et al.

21,946 downloads (posted 20 Jun 2020) infectious diseases

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a new infectious disease that first emerged in Hubei province, China, in December 2019. On 2 March 2020, the Moroccan Ministry of Health confirmed the first COVID-19 case in Morocco. The new virus SARS-CoV-2 was identified in the sample of a Moroccan expatriate residing in Italy. Without a therapeutic vaccine or specific antiviral drugs, early detection and isolation become essential against novel Coronavi...

https://rxivist.org/papers/112786
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.18.20135137

7: Understanding the effectiveness of government interventions in Europe's second wave of COVID-19

Mrinank Sharma, Sören Mindermann et al.

21,562 downloads (posted 26 Mar 2021) epidemiology

As European governments face resurging waves of COVID-19, non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) continue to be the primary tool for infection control. However, updated estimates of their relative effectiveness have been absent for Europe's second wave, largely due to a lack of collated data that considers the increased subnational variation and diversity of NPIs. We collect the largest dataset of NPI implementation dates in Europe, spanning 114 subnational areas in 7 countries, with a systematic categorisation of inte...

https://rxivist.org/papers/135236
https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.25.21254330

8: Robust spike antibody responses and increased reactogenicity in seropositive individuals after a single dose of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine

Florian Krammer, Komal Srivastava et al.

19,150 downloads (posted 01 Feb 2021) allergy and immunology

As COVID-19 vaccines are getting rolled out, an important question is arising: Should individuals who already had a SARS-CoV-2 infection receive one or two shots of the currently authorized mRNA vaccines. In this short report, we are providing evidence that the antibody response to the first vaccine dose in individuals with pre-existing immunity is equal to or even exceeds the titers found in naive individuals after the second dose. We also show that the reactogenicity is significantly higher in individuals who already ...

https://rxivist.org/papers/127586
https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.01.29.21250653

9: SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Impairs Endothelial Function via Downregulation of ACE2

Yuyang Lei, Jiao Zhang et al.

18,194 downloads (posted 04 Dec 2020) pathology

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) includes the cardiovascular complications in addition to respiratory disease. SARS-CoV-2 infection impairs endothelial function and induces vascular inflammation, leading to endotheliitis. SARS-CoV-2 infection relies on the binding of Spike glycoprotein (S protein) to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the host cells. We show here that S protein alone can damage vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro and in vivo, manifested by impaired mitochondrial function, decreased ACE2 ...

https://rxivist.org/papers/120252
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.04.409144

10: #AstraZeneca vaccine disinformation on Twitter

Dariusz Jemielniak, Yaroslav Krempovych

18,014 downloads (posted 16 Apr 2021) health informatics

We analyzed 50,080 tweets about #AstraZeneca in English from 2021. We found that the news most common in the frequently retweeted tweets abound in negative information, and in many cases come from media sources well-known for disinformation. Also, we found that RT, a Russian state-sponsored news website, as well as Al Arabiya, a Saudi-owned news website, are frequently retweeted with information about the vaccine. Our analysis identified large coordination networks involved in political astroturfing and vaccine diplomac...

https://rxivist.org/papers/138219
https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.04.08.21255107

11: Decreased SARS-CoV-2 viral load following vaccination

Matan Levine-Tiefenbrun, Idan Yelin et al.

15,728 downloads (posted 08 Feb 2021) infectious diseases

Beyond their substantial protection of individual vaccinees, it is hoped that the COVID-19 vaccines would reduce viral load in breakthrough infections thereby further suppress onward transmission. Here, analyzing positive SARS-CoV-2 test results following inoculation with the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, we find that the viral load is reduced 4-fold for infections occurring 12-28 days after the first dose of vaccine. These reduced viral loads hint to lower infectiousness, further contributing to vaccine impact on virus spread...

https://rxivist.org/papers/128612
https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.06.21251283

12: Correlation between Chest CT Severity Scores and the Clinical Parameters of Adult Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia

Ghufran Aref Saeed, Waqar Gaba et al.

13,280 downloads (posted 20 Oct 2020) radiology and imaging

PurposeOur aim is to correlate the clinical condition of patients with COVID-19 infection with the 25 Point CT severity score by Chang et al (devised for assessment of ARDS in patients with SARS in 2005). Material and MethodsData of consecutive symptomatic patients who were suspected to have COVID-19 infection and presented to our hospital, was collected from March to April 2020. All patients underwent two consecutive RT-PCR tests and had a non-contrast HRCT scan done at presentation. From the original cohort of 1062 p...

https://rxivist.org/papers/117911
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.15.20213058

13: Features of C-reactive protein in COVID-19 patients with different ages, clinical types and outcomes: a cohort study

Gaojing Qu, Guoxin Huang et al.

13,107 downloads (posted 31 Oct 2020) infectious diseases

BackgroundTo characterize C-reactive protein (CRP) changes features from patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to quantify the correlation between CRP value and clinical classification. MethodsThis was a bidirectional observational cohort study. All laboratory confirmed COVID-19 patients hospitalized in Xiangyang No.1 Peoples Hospital were included. Patients general information, clinical type, CRP value and outcome were collected. Patients were grouped according to the age, clinical type and outcome, an...

https://rxivist.org/papers/118382
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.26.20220160

14: More than 50 Long-term effects of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Sandra Lopez-Leon, Talia Wegman-Ostrosky et al.

12,535 downloads (posted 29 Jan 2021) infectious diseases

COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, can involve sequelae and other medical complications that last weeks to months after initial recovery, which has come to be called Long-COVID or COVID long-haulers. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to identify studies assessing long-term effects of COVID-19 and estimates the prevalence of each symptom, sign, or laboratory parameter of patients at a post-COVID-19 stage. LitCOVID (PubMed and Medline) and Embase were searched by two independent researchers. All articles with ori...

https://rxivist.org/papers/127158
https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.01.27.21250617

15: Viral cultures for COVID-19 infectivity assessment. Systematic review

Tom Jefferson, Elizabeth Spencer et al.

11,213 downloads (posted 04 Aug 2020) epidemiology

Objective To review the evidence from studies comparing SARS-CoV-2 culture, with the results of reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Methods We searched LitCovid, medRxiv, Google Scholar and the WHO Covid-19 database for Covid-19 using the terms viral culture or viral replication and associated synonyms up to 10 September 2020. We carried out citation matching and included studies reporting attempts to culture or observe SARS-CoV-2 matching with cutoffs for RT-PCR positivity. One reviewer extracted ...

https://rxivist.org/papers/114987
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.04.20167932

16: Barriers to online learning in the time of COVID-19: A national survey of medical students in the Philippines

Ronnie E Baticulon, Nicole Rose I Alberto et al.

11,167 downloads (posted 18 Jul 2020) medical education

INTRODUCTION: In March 2020, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic forced medical schools in the Philippines to stop face-to-face learning activities and abruptly shift to an online curriculum. This study aimed to identify barriers to online learning from the perspective of medical students in a developing country. METHOD: The authors sent out an electronic survey to medical students in the Philippines from 11 to 24 May 2020. Using a combination of multiple choice, Likert scale, and open-ended questions, the ...

https://rxivist.org/papers/114195
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.16.20155747

17: The impact of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines on antibody responses in the general population in the United Kingdom

Jia Wei, Nicole Stoesser et al.

11,148 downloads (posted 23 Apr 2021) infectious diseases

Real-world data on antibody response post-vaccination in the general population are limited. 45,965 adults in the UK's national COVID-19 Infection Survey receiving Pfizer-BioNTech or Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccines had 111,360 anti-spike IgG measurements. Without prior infection, seroconversion rates and quantitative antibody levels post single dose were lower in older individuals, especially >60y. Two doses achieved high responses across all ages, particularly increasing seroconversion in older people, to similar levels to...

https://rxivist.org/papers/139223
https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.04.22.21255911

18: Who funded the research behind the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine? - Approximating the funding to the University of Oxford for the research and development of the ChAdOx vaccine technology

Samuel Cross, Yeanuk Rho et al.

10,261 downloads (posted 10 Apr 2021) health policy

Objectives: The Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 or Vaxzevira) builds on nearly two decades of research and development (R&D) into Chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine (ChAdOx) technology at the University of Oxford. This study aims to approximate the funding for the R&D of the ChAdOx technology and the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine, and assess the transparency of funding reporting mechanisms. Design: We conducted a scoping review and publication history analysis of the principal investigators to reco...

https://rxivist.org/papers/137358
https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.04.08.21255103

19: COVID-19 in India: State-wise Analysis and Prediction

Palash Ghosh, Rik Ghosh et al.

9,904 downloads (posted 29 Apr 2020) public and global health

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a highly infectious disease, was first detected in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The disease has spread to 212 countries and territories around the world and infected (confirmed) more than three million people. In India, the disease was first detected on 30 January 2020 in Kerala in a student who returned from Wuhan. The total (cumulative) number of confirmed infected people is more than 37000 till now across India (3 May 2020). Most of the research and newspaper articles focus on ...

https://rxivist.org/papers/109462
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.24.20077792

20: Evaluation of antibody testing for SARS-Cov-2 using ELISA and lateral flow immunoassays

Emily R Adams, Mark Ainsworth et al.

9,838 downloads (posted 20 Apr 2020) infectious diseases

ABSTRACT Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic caused >1 million infections during January-March 2020. There is an urgent need for reliable antibody detection approaches to support diagnosis, vaccine development, safe release of individuals from quarantine, and population lock-down exit strategies. We set out to evaluate the performance of ELISA and lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) devices. Design: We tested plasma for COVID (SARS-CoV-2) IgM and IgG antibodies by ELISA and using nine different LFIA devices. Setting: We perfo...

https://rxivist.org/papers/108958
https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.15.20066407